Sonographic analysis of adult polycystic kidney disease: Retrospective data from South‑East Nigeria
Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (APKD), an inheritable multisystem disease characterized by intrarenal and at times extrarenal disease, has been studied extensively among Caucasian populations. Despite the fact that being black is a risk factor for progressive disease, there is paucity of local published data. As a result, true local incidence and peculiarities in clinical and sonographic characteristics are unknown.
Aim: To present data from 19 patients diagnosed with APKD in a medium‑sized facility over a 16‑year period.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective search was done on the ultrasound registers for patients who had undergone abdominal ultrasound in 16 years (1997-2013). Of the 29 sonographic diagnoses of bilateral PKD made, only 19 had complete records and were included in the study. Data extracted were‑ age, sex, working diagnosis, renal size, diameter of renal cysts, presence or absence of extrarenal cysts, family history of renal cystic disease, blood pressure at diagnosis, and patient outcome.
Results: A total of 19 diagnoses of APKD were made-12 males and seven females with a sex ratio of 1:0.6. Total mean age was 54.8 years (range 31–79 years) -40.1 years for females and 57.2 years for males. In 89.5% of cases, no family history of APKD was obtained. Only six (31.6%) patients were hypertensive at presentation and three patients (16%) were already in renal failure. Ultrasound showed a mean renal size of 88.92 cm2 for the right kidney and 98.97cm2 for the left. Mean cyst diameter was 3.46 cm (range 2.08-4.85cm). Only one patient had documented extrarenal cystic disease. Two patients were lost to renal failure and congestive cardiac failure.
Conclusion: APKD appears to be uncommon in our environment; however, more studies may be elucidatory. Standard sonographic protocol for collecting data from patients with APKD is needed.
Key words: Polycystic kidneys, screening, ultrasound