Pattern of Acquired Heart Diseases among Children Seen in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria
Background: Acquired heart diseases (AHDs) are serious but largely preventable diseases. They are highly prevalent in developing countries where poverty, illiteracy, and poor socioeconomic conditions still pose a significant challenge. The prevalence and pattern of AHD among children have not been previously documented within the study area.
Objectives: To determine the pattern and outcome of AHDs among children in Sokoto, North‑Western Nigeria.
Subjects and Methods: A prospective study conducted at the Pediatric Department of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria from 1st July 2009 to 30th June 2014. Data from all the subjects with AHD were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences.
Results: Of the 3810 children, 110 (2.9%) children were diagnosed with AHD over the study period. The mean age of the subjects was 10.4 ± 3.4 years with M: F ratio of 1.2:1. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) was the most common AHD seen in 47 (42.7%) patients, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy/myocarditis in 36 (32.7%) and pericardial effusion in 12 (10.9%) patients. Endomyocardial fibrosis was seen in 7 (6.4%) patients while infective endocarditis and Kawasaki disease occurred in 6 (5.5%) and 2 (1.8%) patients respectively. Mortality rate was 17.3%. Commonly observed co‑morbidities included heart failure, bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary hypertension.
Conclusion: The pattern of AHD is similar to other studies in developing countries, with RHD being the most prevalent. There is a need for increased emphasis on primary prevention to reduce the burden of these diseases in the study area.
Keywords: Acquired Heart Disease, Children, Nigeria, Outcome, Pattern, Sokoto