Oral Hygiene and Oral Flora Evaluation in Psychiatric Patients in Nursing Homes in Turkey
Context: The World Health Organization has stated that psychiatric patients are a group of people who have oral and dental illnesses.
Aims: The aims of this study were to document the oral hygiene of individuals with chronic psychiatric illness, to determine the extraoral and intraoral findings, to detect the dominant microorganisms in oral flora, and to inform clinicians of these findings.
Settings and Design: The study included 100 patients (69 men and 31 women) with different psychiatric illnesses living in a nursing home. They were 19-96 years old (median, 48 years).
Subjects and Methods: The participants completed a questionnaire about patients’ oral health. They underwent extraoral and intraoral examinations. Two swab samples were obtained from the oral mucosa of these patients. Gram preparations were analyzed for leukocytes, bacteria, and yeast.
Statistical Analysis Used: Chi‑square test and z‑test were used.
Results: All patients (100%) had the necessary equipment for oral hygiene; however, many (43%) patients had poor oral hygiene. There was a high prevalence of xerostomia (56%) and fissured tongue (61.4%) (among other tongue anomalies). The most commonly isolated microorganisms were coagulase‑negative Staphylococcus (35.9%), Streptococcus spp. (30.3%), nondiphtheroid Bacilli (16.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.3%), Candida spp. (11.8%), and Gram‑negative Bacilli (2.8%).
Conclusions: The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram‑negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.
Keywords: Bacteria Types, Oral and Dental Illnesses, Psychiatric Patients