Epidemiology and clinical features of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at a tertiary hospital in Jeddah
Background: This study describes the epidemiology and clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it investigates any association between Child‑Pugh’s classification and HCC.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for HCC cases diagnosed between 2008 and 2014 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. We documented the age at cancer diagnosis, gender, occupation, ethnic origin, HCC etiology, Child‑Pugh scores, tumor characteristics, alpha‑fetoprotein (AFP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels at diagnosis, and treatment administered. The Chi‑square test was used to determine differences between categorical variables.
Results: We included 128 patients. Hepatitis B and C viral infections were documented in 24.2% and 33.6% of the patients, respectively. Patients with tumors >5 cm were more likely to have Child’s Class C disease, whereas those with tumors ≤2 cm were more likely to have Child’s Class A (P < 0.001). Similarly, patients with bilobular or metastatic tumors were more likely to have Child’s Class C disease (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). No difference in Child‑Pugh score was found between patients with single or multiple tumors (P = 0.480). Furthermore, patients who were both hepatitis B and C positive were more likely to have Child’s Class C disease (P = 0.018). Likewise, those who had abnormal AFP and ALP levels ≥1000 ng/mL were more likely to have Child‑Pugh’s Class C liver disease (P = 0.021 in both cases).
Conclusion: Hepatitis C and B infections were the main risk factors associated with HCC.
Keywords: Child‑Pugh criteria, cirrhosis, epidemiology, hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma