Acute kidney injury in Lagos: Pattern, outcomes, and predictors of in‑hospital mortality
Context: The pattern of acute kidney injury (AKI) differs significantly between developed and developing countries.
Aims: The aim of th study was to determine the pattern and clinical outcomes of AKI in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria.
Settings and Design: A retrospective review of hospital records of all patients with a diagnosis of AKI over a 20‑month period.
Subjects and Methods: Records of 54 patients were reviewed. Information retrieved included, bio‑data, etiology of AKI, results of laboratory investigations, and patient outcomes.
Statistical Analysis Used: Continuous data are presented as means while categorical data are presented as proportions. The Student’s t‑test was used to compare means while Chi‑square test was used to compare percentages. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors that predicted in‑hospital mortality.
Results: Twenty‑seven (50%) of the patients were male. The mean age of the study population was 39.7 years ± 16.3 years. Sepsis was the etiology of AKI in 52.1% of cases. Overall, in‑hospital mortality was 29.6%. Patients who died had a shorter mean duration of hospital stay (9.2 days vs. 33.9 days [P < 0.01]), lower mean serum bicarbonate (19.5 mmol/L vs. 22.9 mmmol/L [P = 0.02]), were more likely to be admitted unconscious (82.4% vs. 17.6% [P = 0.01]) and to have been admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (37.5% vs. 7.9% [P = 0.01]). In addition, when dialysis was indicated, patients who did not have dialysis were more likely to die (58.3% vs. 41.7% [P = 0.02]).
Conclusions: The pattern of AKI in this study is similar to that from other developing countries. In‑hospital mortality remains high although most of the causes are preventable.
Key words: Acute kidney injury, etiology, in‑hospital mortality, outcomes