Multiple primary cancers: Simultaneously occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature search
Introduction: Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death in men all over the world, and it is becoming an increasing public health burden in sub-Saharan Africa. In our practice, we identified that prostate cancer co-existed with other primary cancers even in noncontiguous regions of the body and this co-existence impacted on our management of these patients.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied a 2-year period (June 2012-July 2014), the records of patients in our hospital with prostate cancer, who in addition, had other primary cancers; and studied the management and outcomes of these patients. We also reviewed the existing literatures for possible biologic links between prostatic carcinoma and other primary tumors.
Results: There were six patients with multiple primary cancers who had prostate cancers. The age range was 60-84 years and the mean age of 72.2 ± 0.4 years. The primary tumors co-existing with prostate cancer were colonic adenocarcinoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, primary liver cell carcinoma, and thyroid follicular carcinoma in both synchronous and metachronous relationships.
Conclusions: Prostate cancers often co-exist with other cancers. The precise mechanism by which prostate cancer coexists with another primary cancer is yet to be clearly defined. With more study of the syndromic cancers involving the prostate, definite associations could be identified, and this may help in managing these patients better.
Keywords: Multiple primary cancers, primary tumors, prostate cancer