Tracheobroncopathia osteochondroplastica: Three case reports with literature review
Tracheobroncopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is a benign disease of the large airways seen very rarely. It is characterized by 1-3 mm sized ossified nodular lesions in submucosa. Its etiology is unclear, but it is stated that malignancy, chronic inflammation, amyloidosis, and genetic factors might have an effect on it. It was first described by Wilks in a 38-year-old man diagnosed with tuberculosis in 1857. Generally, patients are asymptomatic and TO is diagnosed incidentally. But symptoms become significant with infections and obstruction in tracheabronchial tree. Generally chest radiography is normal, so thorax computed tomography can be remarkable in diagnosis of TO. Besides, final diagnosis can be established by viewing ossified nodules in trachea and bronchus through the fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Amyloidosis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoma, and tracheobronchial calcinosis must be remembered in differential diagnosis. Also ossifications in submucosa and proof of bone marrow in histopathological examinations are important in diagnosis of TO. Mostly palliative treatment is performed to the symptoms . We want the clinicians to keep in mind for this very rarely seen tracheal disease with three case reports.
Keywords: Ossificated nodular lesion, thorax computed tomography, tracheal disease, tracheobroncopathia osteochondroplastica