Pattern of Maxillofacial Surgical Conditions in North Central Nigeria: A 5-year Experience of an Indigenous Surgical Mission
Background: Several publications have presented pattern of maxillofacial surgical conditions based on data from hospital-based studies. The objective of this study is to present the spectrum of maxillofacial surgical conditions from the perspective of a community study. Methods: This is a prospective study of all patients seen and treated from 2011 to 2016. The information obtained included the biodata, clinical history of the disease conditions, radiological result, histopathologic result, diagnosis, and treatment records. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20.0. Results: There was a total of 863 patients, male 464 (53.8%) and female 399 (46.2%). The male to female sex ratio was 1.16:1. The age range was 3 days to 76 years with a mean age (SD) 16.8 ± 15.8 years. The spectrum of surgical conditions: facial clefts 492(57.0%); tumor and tumor-like lesions 126(15.2%), trauma 6(0.7%), and others 48(5.5 %). The size of tumors ranged from 5 to 50.4 cm2 with a mean (SD) 21.6 ± 11.9 cm2 and the duration of lesion ranged from 1 to 20 years with mean (SD) 8.7 ± 6.0 years. A total of 622(77.4) cases were operated within the study period with immediate jaw reconstruction in 5(0.8%) patients. Minor complications were recorded but there was no mortality. Conclusion: The spectrum of maxillofacial surgery from community-based data was associated with higher percentage of facial cleft as compared to hospital-based study that is associated with higher traumatic injury cases. High level of poverty, ignorance, and poor access to maxillofacial service have been identified as shortcomings in the management of the diseases. There is a need for pragmatic move to improve facility, training, enlightenment, and more funding of outreach programs.
Keywords: Indigenous surgical mission, maxillofacial surgical conditions, North Central Nigeria