Behavioural and anthropometric risk factors for diabetes mellitus among newly admitted undergraduates in a Nigerian University
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is fast becoming a global epidemic, and its prevalence is increasing in children and young adults. The aim of the study was to identify young adults who had type 2 DM or impaired fasting glucose as well as those at risk of these conditions using anthropometric data and behavioral pattern.
Methodology: Two hundred and twenty newly admitted undergraduates who were randomly selected during the registration process were involved in the study. Anthropometric parameters were measured while information on demographic details, medical history, and family history were obtained using a standard questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose was measured using the glucose oxidase method.
Results: Two hundred and seven (94%) participants had serum glucose within reference range, 10 (4.6%) had impaired fasting glucose, and 3 (1.4%) had serum glucose >7.1 mmol/L, which is indicative of DM. A large number (91.4%) of individuals engaged in physical activity equivalent to a walk of at least 30 min/day. Most of them (93.2%) had body mass index <25.0 while 6.8% were overweight. One hundred and three participants (46.8%) indicated that they eat 3 or more servings of whole grain per day.
Conclusion: Most of the participants are involved in healthy lifestyle. This has resulted in very low prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 DM among the group. It will be useful to follow up the group and note if they are able to maintain this trend since the risk of developing DM is known to increase with age.
Keywords: Impaired fasting glucose, lifestyle, prevalence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, young adults