Diabetes or hypertension as risk indicators for missing teeth experience: An exploratory study in a sample of Mexican adults
Background: To determine an exploratory estimation of the strength of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension diagnoses as risk indicators for missing teeth in a sample of Mexican adults.
Materials and Methods: A comparative cross‑sectional study of sixty adult patients in a health center in Mexico included as dependent variable, the number of missing teeth (and having a functional dentition) and as independent variables, diagnoses for diabetes or hypertension, age, sex, maximum level of schooling, and tobacco use. Of the 60 participants, 20 were diagnosed with T2DM, 13 with hypertension, and 27 were otherwise diagnosed as healthy in their most recent medical checkup. A negative binomial regression (NBR) model was generated.
Results: Mean age was 50.7 ± 16.2 and 50.0% were women. Mean number of missing teeth was 4.98 ± 4.17. In the multivariate NBR model, we observed that individuals with T2DM had higher risk of more missing teeth (incidence rate ratios [IRRs] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.09–4.69), followed by those with hypertension (IRRs = 2.63; 95% CI = 1.77–3.90). In addition, participants with current tobacco use were significantly more likely to have suffered tooth loss (P < 0.05) than those who were never smokers or former smokers, just like older participants (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: T2DM and hypertension are independently associated with higher experience of missing teeth in an open adult population in Mexico. Future studies with a more sophisticated epidemiological design and encompassing a more detailed landscape of chronic diseases, type and length of use of long‑term medications, and patterns of dental care use are needed to better delineate these associations.
Keywords: Adult, hypertension, Mexico, tooth loss, type 2 diabetes