An analysis of patients in palliative care with pressure injuries
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that are effective for the treatment, recovery of pressure injury (PI) and costs in palliative care (PC) patients.
Materials and Methods: From a retrospective review of patient records, the PI localization, the presence of infection, PI stage on admission, discharge and treatment costs were recorded. Patients were grouped according to diagnoses, and PI localizations (sacrum, trochanter, ischium, and heel). The comparison was made of changes in wound stage in the groups.
Results: PI was present in all 154 patients during hospitalization and in 94 (61%) on discharge. Full recovery was determined in 52/129 (40.3%) patients with PI in the sacrum, in 23/46 (50%) in the trochanter, in 22/40 (55.0%) in the heel, and in 10/12 (83.3%) in the ischium. Worsening PI stage was observed in 5 (3.9%) in the sacrum, in 1 in the trochanter and in 4 in the heel. Improvement in PI stage was seen in 96 (74.4%) in the sacrum, in 35 (3.9%) in the trochanter, in 27 (50.5%) in the heel, and in 10 (83.3%) in the ischium. Regardless of wound localization, the improvement was observed in 168 (74%) of 227 PI and worsening in 10 (4.4%). The group with no change in the PI stage had prolonged hospital stay and higher costs. The Karnovsky Performance Score and Glasgow Coma Score of fully recovered patients were determined to be higher, and no statistically significant difference was seen in respect of age.
Conclusions: PC patients are prone to PI due to many chronic diseases. The localization of PI and infection are effective factors in the healing of ulcers. The treatment costs for PC patients is higher if they have a pressure ulcer. More comprehensive studies will be useful to clarify the economic and social dimensions of this issue.
Keywords: Health care costs, palliative care, pressure injuries