Investigating the effects of two different pump heads (Centrifugal vs. Roller Pump) on hematological and immunological mechanisms
Background and Aim: Technological developments and enhancement of knowledge level enable heart surgery with low mortality rates in most centers. On the other hand, increased systemic inflammatory response against cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) plays a critical role in the development of postoperative complications. We aimed to compare the effects of centrifugal pump where it is claimed that blood is exposed to minimal trauma and roller pump techniques on inflammatory response and oxidant status during CPB.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients, who had coronary artery disease and underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery using either roller or centrifugal pump between June 2012 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Patients over 40 years old and without any known immunologic, infectious, or inflammatory incidents and hematological problems for the past 6 months were included in the study. Two study groups (Group R: roller pump group and Group C: centrifugal pump group) were created. During CABG surgery tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and nitric oxide levels were measured before and after CPB.
Results: TNF alpha, IL‑6, and IL‑8 levels measured before and after CPB were found to be similar between groups. SOD, CAT and Nitric oxide levels were also similar between groups. After the CPB period, glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in Group R measured after CPB were significantly lower than those measured in Group C. The platelet‑activating factor (PAF) levels before CPB usage period were same in both groups, where PAF levels after CPB were found to be significantly higher in roller pump group than centrifugal pump group. At inter‑group comparisons, the levels of PAF were same at each group before and after CPB.
Conclusion: The study findings indicate that usage of the centrifugal pump does not have a clear superiority in terms of the effects on inflammatory response and oxidant status during CPB when compared to roller pump. Nevertheless, we believe that our results should be supported by further clinical and experimental studies.
Keywords: Cardiopulmonary bypass, centrifugal pump, inflammation, oxidant status, roller pump