Diagnostic value of transvaginal four‑dimensional hysterosalpingo‑contrast sonography combined with recanalization in patients with tubal infertility
Background: A retrospective study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic value of transvaginal four‑dimensional hysterosalpingo‑contrast sonography (TVS 4D‑HyCoSy) combined with recanalization versus laparoscopy for patients with tubal infertility.
Materials and Methods: A total of 195 patients undergoing TVS 4D‑HyCoSy were analyzed retrospectively. Of these, 72 patients underwent laparoscopy, which was the gold standard. The endpoints were coincidence rate (defined as a parameter consistent with results arising from TVS 4D‑HyCoSy and laparoscopic examination using dye), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and Youden index for TVS 4D‑HyCoSy.
Results: A total of 385 fallopian tubes were assessed by TVS 4D‑HyCoSy, of which 147 (38.2%) were tubal patency, 178 (46.2%) as partial tubal obstruction, and 60 (15.6%) as complete tubal obstruction. Of 195 patients, 72 patients with 144 fallopian tubes underwent laparoscopy and a total coincidence rate of 90.97% compared with TVS 4D‑HyCoSy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and Youden index for 4D‑HyCoSy versus laparoscopy were 97.7%, 86.7%, 98.4%, 81.3%, and 0.84, respectively.
Conclusions: TVS 4D‑HyCoSy represents a highly useful method for diagnosing tubal patency. However, further large‑scale studies are warranted to investigate our findings in patients with tubal infertility.
Keywords: Four‑dimensional, laparoscopy SonoVue, recanalization, tubal infertility