Histopathologic Spectrum of Paediatric Eye and Ocular Adnexal Tumours: A 10‑Year Review from a Referral Centre in Nigeria
Background: Tumours of the eye and adnexa demonstrate great histologic variety and constitute a serious threat to vision especially in children.
Aims: The study aims to review the epidemiologic and pathologic characteristics of tumours of the eye and ocular adnexa in the paediatric age group (0‑14 years).
Methods: All the cases entered into the departmental records as tumours of the eye and ocular adnexa over a 10‑year period in the age group 0‑14 years were extracted. The patients’ request cards with all relevant Haematoxylin & Eosin (H & E)–stained histology slides were retrieved. All the slides were reviewed and the cases were classified in accordance with the 4th edition of the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Eye (2018). The collected data were subjected to descriptive statistical tabulation and analysis.
Results: A total of 104 tumours of the eye and ocular adnexae were diagnosed in the paediatric age group, accounting for 40.5% of all eye and ocular adnexal tumours diagnosed over the study period. The male to female ratio was 1.7:1 and malignant tumours greatly outnumbered benign tumours by a ratio of 5.5:1. Majority (76%) of the tumours occurred in the retina with retinoblastoma representing all the tumours diagnosed in this location. Rhabdomyosarcoma was the most common paediatric orbital tumour accounting for over half (53.8%) of all tumours in the orbit. Tumours of the conjunctiva and the eyelid were infrequent with benign soft tissue tumours (vascular, neural and lipomatous tumours) being the major tumours at these sites.
Conclusion: Retinoblastoma is the single most common tumour in this age group.
Keywords: Eye, pediatrics, retinoblastoma, tumour