Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

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Prevalence of dermatological lesions in hospitalized children at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

OO Okafor, FO Akinbami, AE Orimadegun, CM Okafor, AO Ogunbiyi


Objective: Skin disorders constitute a significant proportion of consultations in children’s clinics; however, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of dermatological lesions in hospitalized children in Nigeria. This study determines the prevalence of dermatological lesions in hospitalized children.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 402 children aged three months to twelve years admitted in the Pediatric wards of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, were enrolled over a six-month period. Examination of the skin and its appendages was done for each patient. Data on the socioeconomic status, hygiene, and health-related factors were also obtained using a structured questionnaire.
Results: Over 96% of the children had at least one identifiable skin lesion. The five leading skin lesions were postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (49.5%), BCG scar (28.4%), Mongolian spots (27.1%), junctional melanocytic nevi (20.1%), and café-au-lait macules (18.4%). The leading infectious skin disease was pyoderma (13.4%), followed by tinea capitis (6.7%). Scarification marks (P=0.001), tinea capitis (P=0.014), plantar fissuring (P=0.001), and impetigo (P=0.016) were associated with low socioeconomic classes, while the presence of BCG scar (50.0%) was associated with the high socioeconomic class.
Conclusions: This study shows that dermatologic lesions are common in hospitalized children. Identifying them will provide an opportunity for pediatricians to educate parents on the various causes as well as prevention of lesions.
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