A histopathological study of carcinoma of the prostate in port Harcourt, Nigeria
AbstractObjectives: To determine the incidence of prostate cancer in Port Harcourt and the surrounding towns whose residents patronize the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital for tertiary health care, histologically characterize the patterns of these cancers, and grade them according to the Gleason scheme.
Materials and Methods: Blocks and slides of prostate specimens received at the Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1997 and December 2006 were retrospectively selected for this study. The slides were studied using a binocular Olympus light microscope. Patients’ age at presentation, presenting symptoms, and clinical diagnosis were sorted out from the request cards and the department’s archival register.
Results: Carcinoma was diagnosed in 198 specimens (37.4%) of the 529 cases reviewed. Of these, 164 (82.8%) were clinical carcinoma (having been found in clinically suspected carcinoma cases for which trucut biopsies were undertaken), while 34 (17.2%) were incidental carcinoma cases (being found in prostatectomy biopsy cases of patients clinically diagnosed with nodular hyperplasia). All of the clinical carcinomas were adenocarcinomas predominantly moderately differentiated and of large acinar pattern. Also, all of the incidental carcinomas were adenocarcinomas predominantly well differentiated and of large acinar pattern. The Gleason scores (GSs) were varied but predominantly of high values, particularly with clinical carcinoma cases. The age range was 42 to 90 years and the mean was 70 years with a peak of 70 to 79 years.
Conclusion: The incidence of prostate cancer in Port Harcourt is high relative to other Nigerian centers where similar studies have been carried out and compares well with the high incidence found among African American men. Histologically, all cases are acinar adenocarcinomas. Most patients present late with high GS carcinoma and therefore have poor prognosis. There is a need for enlightenment of the male populace on the high incidence of this deadly disease as well as for screening to reduce the number of patients presenting late and therefore improve prognosis.