Angiodysplasia of the colon: A report of two cases and review of literature
AbstractAngiodysplasias of the colon are enlarged and fragile blood vessels in the colon result in occasional loss of blood from the lower gastrointestinal tract. It may be observed incidentally at colonoscopy or patients may present with lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The objective of this case report is to highlight two cases of colonic vascular ectasia seen using a Pentax video colonoscope at the Endoscopy unit of Crescent hospital, Ilorin. The first patient is an 85-year-old man, who presented with constipation, left-sided abdominal pain, and weight loss of two weeks duration. There was no anorexia, abdominal swelling, diarrhea, or hematochezia. Abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography showed normal findings. Colonoscopy done, reaching the ileo-cecal valve and caecum, showed an area of dilated tortuous blood vessel (vascular ectasia) in the wall of the descending colon approximately 45 cm from the anal verge, with no features of bleeding. No ulcers or mass lesion was seen. Colonoscopy showed angiodysplasia of the colon. The second patient is a 30-year-old female trader who presented with two days history of massive hematochezia of about 7 episodes prior to presentation with an estimated blood loss per episode of about 300 ml. There were clinical features of shock. Packed cell volume at presentation was 14%. She was transfused with 4 units of fresh whole blood. Post stabilization, colonoscopy was done 5 days after bleeding had stopped, which revealed an area of erosion with mucosal blood clot about 27 cm from the anal verge. An area of angiodysplasia was seen. No hemorrhoids or mass lesion was seen anywhere in the colon. Angiodysplasia is an uncommon finding in Ilorin. These are the first reported cases of angiodysplasia of the colon from Ilorin, Nigeria.
Keywords: Angiodysplasia, bleeding, colon, colonoscopy
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Mar 2012 • Vol 15 • Issue 1