Electrocardiographic changes during oesophagogastroscopy
Background: Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) should be very safe, but there are many potential hazards, although the rate of serious complications is small. There are so many complications that can arise during this procedure. Most of these complications involve the respiratory or cardiovascular systems, especially in sick or sedated patients. The aim of this study was to determine the various electrocardiographic changes that can occur at different stages of diagnostic EGD and to determine their severity.
Materials and Methods: The study is a descriptive one which was carried out at the endoscopy unit of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, (LAUTECH), Osogbo, Osun State. Consecutive patients who were referred for oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) over a 3-month period and who consented to take part in the study were recruited. The electrodes of a portable electrocardiographic (ECG) machine (model Cardiovit AT_1ECG Machine) were attached to the patients accordingly and remained fixed till the end of the procedure. ECG recordings were done at baseline, postpremedication, during intubation and 5 minutes postprocedure. The results of the study were analyzed
using simple descriptive statistical methods such as range, mean and standard deviation for continuous variables, and numbers and percentages for discreet variables.
Results: Twenty-six (26) patients were studied, comprising 14 (53.8%) males and 12 (46.2%) females. The mean age of the patients was 47.19 ± 14.42 years. Three (11.5%) patients had tachycardia at the beginning of the procedure, while 13 (50%) patients developed tachycardia postpremedication and during the procedure, whereas 17 (65.4%) patients
had tachycardia at the end of the procedure. Only one patient had bradycardia. Various ST-T wave abnormalities were observed at each stage of the procedure. Conduction abnormality was observed in 8 (30.8%), 9 (34.6%), 7 (26.9%) and 5 (19.2%) patients at rest, post-premedication, during the procedure and postprocedure respectively. Premature ventricular complexes (PVC) were observed in 4 (15.4%), 5 (19.2%), 4 (15.4%), and 4 (15.4%) patients at rest, postpremedication, during the procedure and post procedure respectively.
Conclusion: This study has shown that, although ECG abnormalities do occur during EGD, these abnormalities are not severe enough to warrant specific interventions or discontinuation of the procedure.
Key words: Changes, electrocardiography, oesophagogastroduodenoscopy