Patterns of superficial venous arrangement in the cubital fossa of adult Nigerians
Background: The cubital fossa is a common site for the removal of venous blood for analysis, transfusion, and intravenous therapy. The superficial venous return from the upper limb follows two or three major superficial veins, which are extremely variable; these include the cephalic, basilic, median cubital, and antebrachial veins and their tributaries.
Objective: This anthroposcopic study was to determine the patterns of superficial venous arrangement in the cubital fossa of adult Nigerians.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty.five subjects (100 males and 35 females), aged between 20 and 27 years, were studied. The judgment sampling technique was employed. A tourniquet was firmly tied at the midarm level and the conspicuous superficial veins were diagrammatized and photographed with a camera.
Results: Ten types of venous pattern arranged in six groups were noted. The most common pattern observed was the median antebrachial vein, dividing into median cephalic and median basilic veins, which join the cephalic and the basilic veins, respectively, with a variation. The result showed bilateral difference between the incidence of each type in males and females with the male values being statistically higher (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Appreciation of these venous patterns is useful to the medical and paramedical workers, especially in conditions that require venepuncture.
Key words: Arrangement, cubital fossa, superficial veins