Tobacco use and oral health of inmates in a Nigerian prison

  • EA Akaji
  • N Folaranmi


Objectives: To determine the effect of tobacco use on oral health status of inmates of a federal prison in Enugu, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: The study involved 230 inmates of the Nigerian Prison in Enugu. An interviewer‑administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the demographic characteristics of the participants, oral hygiene methods, and smoking habits. An intra‑oral examination to determine their oral health status was done using simplified oral hygiene index (OHI‑S) for the oral hygiene status, the modified decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index for caries status, and community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) for the periodontal needs. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 15 was used to analyze data.
Results: One hundred and twenty participants (52.2%) were current smokers. Mean DMFT of smokers and nonsmokers were 2.38 ± 0.71 and 2.25 ± 0.83 respectively (P = 0.508) while mean Community Periodontal Index (CPI) scores of smokers and nonsmokers were 4.71 ± 1.26 and 2.27 ± 0.86, respectively (P = 0.276). Oral soft tissue lesions such as mucosal burn, oral leukoplakia‑like lesions were found mainly in the tobacco users.
Conclusion: Tobacco use had a negative effect on the oral health of the participants as smokers had worse oral health profile than non‑smokers. They may benefit from counseling programs with the view to educate them on the effect of tobacco use on oral health and by extension, the general health. The full implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) treaty in Nigeria could help in curtailing these unwanted consequences of tobacco use.

Keywords: Oral health promotion, prisoners, periodontal health, tobacco use

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Oct-Dec 2013 • Vol 16 • Issue 4

Author Biographies

EA Akaji
Department of Preventive Dentistry, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku‑Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria
N Folaranmi
Child Dental Health, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku‑Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1119-3077