Clustering of cardiovascular disease risk‑factors in semi‑urban population in Northern Nigeria
AbstractIntroduction: Non‑communicable diseases (NCDs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality particularly for developing countries. Large proportion of all NCDs deaths are occurring in low‑ and ‑middle‑income countries are estimated to occur in people under 70‑years‑old. These low‑ and middle‑income are undergoing epidemiological transition which allows the concomitant occurrence of both communicable and NCDs due to adoption of western life‑style that predisposes them to development of these diseases. It is also known that there are risk‑factors that tend to cluster in individuals and make them more susceptible to NCDs especially cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Among NCDs, CVDs constitute the largest share responsible for 48% of all deaths due to NCDs. To determine extend of clustering of these risk‑factors in a semi‑urban community in northern Nigeria, a population‑based study was carried out.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Dakace, a semi‑urban settlement near Zaria. A simple random sampling of 199 eligible respondents out of 424 was adopted to select study participants. An interviewer‑administered questionnaire was used to collect socio‑demographic information, smoking habits, alcohol consumption as well as level of physical activity. The following measurements were carried out on these respondents: Blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, serum lipids, weight, and height to calculate body mass index (BMI).
Results: There were of 199 participants: 94 males (47.2%) and 105 females (52.8%) with an overall mean age of 39.9 ± 15.6 years. About 20% had no risk factor; more females than males had risk‑factors. Proportion of subjects with risk‑factors increase with increasing BMI, particularly high BP; physical activity does not protect subjects from developing risk‑factors.
Conclusion: This study clearly shows that CVD risk‑factors are prevalent even in segment of the population that hitherto may be considered free and the prevalence of these risk‑factors are high compared to some obtained from other part of Nigeria.
Keywords: Cardiovascular, clustering, Dakace, Northern Nigeria, risk‑factors
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Oct-Dec 2013 • Vol 16 • Issue 4