Pediatric HIV in Kano, Nigeria
AbstractBackground: Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is still an important public health issue despite a decrease in global, national, and local seroprevalence rates. Design: A prospective, hospital‑based study was conducted.
Materials and Methods: One‑hundred and sixty children presenting for the first time to the hospital were studied. Each child had a detailed physical examination and initial double rapid HIV antibody tests. A virological confirmatory test was done for those aged less than 18 months of age with positive results. Mothers of HIV‑infected children also had HIV testing. HIV‑infected children were enrolled into HIV care and followed up for 6 months. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 16.0 for Windows.
Results: Twenty‑two (13.8%) children were confirmed HIV‑infected. The mean age was 26.9 ± 30.8 months. Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Probable modes of transmission were mother‑to‑child in 63.6%, group circumcision in 22.7%, sexual transmission in 9.1% and unscreened blood transfusion in 4.5%. The most frequent symptoms on presentation were fever in 95.4% of patients, cough and weight loss in 77.3% and diarrhoea in 59.1%. The most common signs were hepatomegaly in 77.3%, pyrexia and crepitations in 72.7%, and pallor in 40.9%. Commonly diagnosed conditions were undernutrition, diarrheal disease, oral thrush, and pneumonia. Tuberculosis co‑infection was diagnosed in 18.2% of children. Fourteen (63.6%) children had advanced and severe immunodeficiency. Mortality rate over 6 months was 18.2%.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis of pediatric HIV and prompt institution of treatment in children would go a long way in reducing the scourge of the disease.
Keywords: Clinical features, human immunodefi ciency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, mortality, pediatrics, prevalence
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Oct-Dec 2013 • Vol 16 • Issue 4