Hepatic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels in HIV/HBV co‑infected and HIV mono‑infected patients in Maiduguri, Nigeria
AbstractBackground: Studies have shown that HIV‑HBV co‑infected patients have an increased risk of liver‑related morbidity and mortality compared to their HIV‑mono‑infected counterparts. Furthermore, it has been reported that HIV‑HBV co‑infected patients have a significantly high incidence of drug‑induced hepatotoxicity following commencement of HAART than HIV‑mono‑infected patients.
Objectives: To compare the levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALKPO4) enzyme levels between HAART naïve HIV‑HBV co‑infected patients and their HIV‑mono‑infected counterparts.
Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional descriptive study in which 142 newly diagnosed HIV/HBV co‑infected and HIV mono‑infected adults were investigated for alkaline aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels.
Results: The study subjects comprised of 80 (56.3%) females and 62 (46.7%) males. The age range of the study population was 15‑65 years. The mean ages of male and female subjects were 45.5 ± 10.5 years and 39.1 ± 7.5 years respectively (P < 0.05). Sixty‑three (44.4%) study subjects were HIV/HBV co‑infected while 79 (55.6%) were HIV mono‑infected. The mean ALT enzyme level of HIV/HBV co‑infected subjects was significantly higher than that of HIV mono‑infected ones i.e., 42.12 IU/l vs. 27.86 IU/l, (P = 0.038). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean AST (30.14 IU/l vs. 29.09 IU/l, P = 0.893) and ALKPO4 (55.86 IU/l vs. 60.97 IU/l, P = 0.205) enzyme levels between HIV‑HBV co‑infected and HIV mono‑infected subjects albeit the two enzymes were moderately elevated in both categories of subjects.
Conclusion: The significantly elevated ALT enzyme levels amongst HIV‑HBV co‑infected subjects suggest that HIV‑HBV co‑infected patients may have an increased risk of liver‑related morbidity and mortality than their HIV mono‑infected counterparts. Screening for serological markers of chronic HBV infection, as well as hepatic transaminase enzyme levels in all newly diagnosed HIV‑positive patients is therefore recommended before commencement of HAART.
Keywords: Alkaline phosphatase enzyme, hepatitis B virus surface antigen, hepatic transaminase enzymes, human immunodeficiency virus
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Oct-Dec 2013 • Vol 16 • Issue 4