Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice <p>The <em>Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice</em> is the official publication of the Medical and Dental Consultants Association of Nigeria (MDCAN) established in 1997 and published regularly twice yearly in June and December. Its purpose is to promote clinical and academic excellence in Medicine and Dentistry and allied sciences.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><em>Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice </em>has been admitted into the latest Journal Citation Reports with an Impact factor of 0.168 (as of June 2011)</p> en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. (Prof. Titus Osita Chukwuanukwu) (Dr Joseph I Ikechebelu) Fri, 27 Oct 2023 06:16:28 +0000 OJS 60 Success Rate of Immediately Loaded Implants in the Posterior Zone <p>Dental implants are considered an ideal treatment for a missing single tooth. Immediate loading of implants can hasten the procedure,&nbsp; providing comfort to the patients. Recently, immediate loading of implants has gained much importance as it helps hasten the procedure&nbsp; and provides more comfort to patients. A previous systematic review published 5 years ago compared the success rates&nbsp; between immediate and conventional loading. There are several factors that influence the success rate of implants that were not&nbsp; discussed in detail in the previous review. Hence, the present systematic review is done to report differences in the outcomes from single&nbsp; implant restorations of missing teeth in the posterior region in patients who were subjected to immediate loading and conventional&nbsp; loading. A follow up for 1 year was done. Electronic databases of Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for publications in&nbsp; the English Language during May 2021. The search results yielded 306 articles, out of which 225 were excluded based on title and abstract&nbsp; screening. Screening of the remaining 81 full text articles yielded 14 original research articles that satisfied the predefined&nbsp; inclusion criteria. Meta analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the data. The overall success rate of the immediate loading&nbsp; of a single implant is 94.31%. Implants in the maxillary region had a higher survival rate than those in the mandibular region. The age&nbsp; range between 18 and 80 years showed good prognosis and outcomes in older individuals. Good oral hygiene was emphasized for all&nbsp; patients to prevent any secondary conditions or delays in healing.&nbsp;</p> M.H. Mugri, M.E. Sayed, S. Bhandi, H.A.A. Alaqi, N.H.B. Alsubeaie, S.H. Alsubaie, S. Varadarajan, A.T. Raj, P.K. Yadalam, Z. Khurshid, T.M. Balaji, S. Patil Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Evaluation of Ursodeoxycholic Acid Treatment in Prolonged Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia due to Breast Milk <p><strong>Background/Aim</strong>: Prolonged jaundice is one of the most common problems during neonatal period. The aim of this study was to&nbsp; evaluate the efficiency of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment in newborn infants with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia.<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The present study included 27 patients who were fed by breast milk and followed up in the outpatient clinic due&nbsp; to prolonged jaundice without any underlying etiological factor; 10 mg/kg/day UDCA was administrated in two doses for 7 days.&nbsp; Furthermore, 20 newborns diagnosed with prolonged jaundice with same characteristics were enrolled as the control group. The control&nbsp; group was also given a placebo; demographic characteristics, liver functions tests before and after the treatment, bilirubin decrease&nbsp; rates, and hemogram parameters of groups were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Total bilirubin levels in the study and control groups before the&nbsp; treatment were 16.02 ± 1.41 mg/dL and 15.93 ± 1.66 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.84). Total bilirubin levels in the study and control groups at&nbsp; day 7 after UDCA treatment were detected 8.18 ± 2.31 mg/dL and 13.92 ± 2.66 mg/dL, respectively (P &lt; 0.001), and at day 14 after the&nbsp; treatment were 5.45 ± 2.59 mg/dL and 11.91 ± 2.83 mg/dL, respectively (P &lt; 0.001). Furthermore, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected &lt;21 U/L in the ROC analysis after UDCA treatment (P = 0.04).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study outcomes indicated that an efficient&nbsp; reduction in total bilirubin levels may be achieved, and outpatient clinic follow-up period may be reduced in patients whom UDCA was&nbsp; administrated. Moreover, it may be speculated that AST can be used to evaluate the efficacy after treatment. However, studies with larger&nbsp; sample sizes are needed for the routine use of UDCA in the treatment of prolonged jaundice.&nbsp;</p> A. Ozdemir, S. Kurtoglu, H. Halis, O. Bastug Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Yi Jin Jing on Juvenile Cervical Spondylopathy in China: A Parallel, Randomized, Assessor‑Blinded Clinical Trial <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cervical spondylopathy is a common musculo-articular disorder, multiple exercises are recommended. Chinese fitness&nbsp; exercises are prevalent and used to treat various diseases.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To explore the efficacy of Chinese fitness exercise Yi Jin Jing exercise in&nbsp; intervening the cervical spondylopathy in adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods</strong>: The study was conducted in 60 adolescent patients with&nbsp; cervical spondylopathy, with 30 patients in each group.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study was conducted in 60 adolescent patients with cervical&nbsp; spondylopathy, with 30 patients in each group. The observation group was required to take Yi Jin Jing exercise, and the control group took&nbsp; the brisk walking exercise. The first week was the preparatory period for the patients, and then the participants were required to do&nbsp; exercises three times a week for at least 30 minutes in the later 3 weeks. Before and after treatment, Neck Disability Index (NDI)&nbsp; scores, pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and cervical curvature in both groups were observed, and the incidence of adverse events in&nbsp; both groups was recorded during the trial.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The NDI and VAS scores in both groups statistically decreased after intervention and mildly increased at follow-up, while the reduction in scores of the Yi Jin Jing group was more significant. Cervical curvature in both&nbsp; groups improved on day 28 compared to day 0. There were no adverse reactions during the evaluation period.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The Chinese&nbsp; health‑care qigong Yi Jin Jing exercise is more effective than brisk walking in improving the cervical range of motion and relieving pain in adolescents with cervical spondylopathy.</p> W. Guo, H. Xing, X. Gong, L. He, Z. Zhang, C. Jia Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Chlorhexidine and Benzalkonium Chloride on the Long‑term Push‑out Bond Strength of Fiber Posts <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: Fiber posts are widely used in endodontically treated teeth with extensive loss of coronal structure. The purpose&nbsp; of this study was to investigate immediate and the long‑term effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) application,&nbsp; on the push‑out bond strength of fiber posts.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: Sixty mandibular premolars were decoronated, and&nbsp; root canal treatment was performed. After post space preparation, the specimens were divided into three groups according to the post&nbsp; space-surface pretreatment (n = 20); no surface treatment (control group—Group 1), 2% CHX application (Group 2), and 1% BAC&nbsp; application (Group 3). A self-curing adhesive cement and an etch and rinse adhesive were used for the cementation of posts. Three&nbsp; sections (one cervical, one middle, and one apical) of 1 mm thickness were prepared from each specimen. A push-out test was performed immediately on the half of the specimen sections (n = 10). The other half of the specimen sections were subjected to 20.000 thermal&nbsp; cycles before applying the push-out test (n = 10). The failure mode of each specimen was observed under a stereomicroscope at ×40&nbsp; magnification.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The data were analyzed by one‑way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey Honestly significant difference (HSD),&nbsp; and Tamhane tests (P = 0.05). The cervical thirds displayed the highest, and the apical thirds showed the lowest values in all groups (P &lt;&nbsp; 0.05), except the control-aged group (P = 0.554). The aged control groups’ values were found to be significantly lower than the aged CHX&nbsp; and BAC groups (P &lt; 0.001). Aging significantly reduced the bond strength values of specimens in control groups (P &lt; 0.001). However,&nbsp; aging did not significantly affect the push‑out bond strength values of CHX and BAC groups (P &gt; 0.050). The failure types were adhesive&nbsp; between the post and cement (type 1) in all groups, except control-aged group (type 2).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The application of 2% chlorhexidine or 1% BAC may be an essential step that can be taken to preserve the bond strength of fiber posts.&nbsp;</p> A. Hazar, S. Akgul, E. Hazar Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Automated ABR Screening for Hearing Loss and its Clinical Determinants among Newborns with Hyperbilirubinemia in National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a known risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss which is usually undiagnosed in&nbsp; our environment until school age due to a lack of routine screening programs.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study&nbsp; conducted between August 2020 and February 2021 employed a universal sampling of consecutive eligible participants after their&nbsp; mothers’ consent. Hearing screening was conducted using an automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) device (Otoport OAE +&nbsp; ABR®). The proportion of AABR screening failure was assessed while associated clinical risk factors were determined using logistic&nbsp; regression. Statistical significance was set at 5% for all comparative analyses.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: One hundred and sixty newborns below 28 days of&nbsp; age, delivered at 34 weeks gestation and above, who had jaundice were recruited. The prevalence of screening AABR failure in at least&nbsp; one ear was 26.2%. Significant risk factors for AABR screening failure in addition to extreme and hazardous hyperbilirubinemia were&nbsp; acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) (Odds Ratio (OR) =4.44, 95% CI = 3.19-6.17), birth weight below 2500 g (OR = 3.16, 95% CI =&nbsp; 1.48-6.77), dull tympanic membrane (TM) (OR = 5.94, 95% CI = 2.36-14.92) and exchange blood transfusion (OR = 4.84, 95% CI =&nbsp; 1.87-12.58).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Recommendations</strong>: The prevalence of AABR screening failure was high, and a dull TM was its strongest&nbsp; predictor among late reterm and term neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. Otoscopy should be included in the care of newborn with&nbsp; hyperbilirubinemia and screening programs established to mitigate hearing loss among high-risk neonates in Abuja.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> O.I. Oyinwola, M. Mukhtar-Yola, A.D. Olusesi, T.A. Oluwasola Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Salivary Glycated Albumin in Periodontitis Patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its Changes with Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy <p><strong>Background</strong>: Bidirectional relationship exists between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. Glycated albumin is an emerging biomarker&nbsp; to assess intermediate glycemic control. Salivary glycated albumin has not been evaluated in periodontitis.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of the study was&nbsp; to compare salivary glycated albumin in periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus before and after periodontal&nbsp; therapy.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This comparative crosssectional study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics. Ninety&nbsp; subjects (mean age 41.8 ± 6.82) were categorized into three groups. Clinical examination and saliva sample collection were done at&nbsp; baseline and 4 weeks after scaling and root debridement. Salivary glycated albumin levels were estimated using an enzyme-linked&nbsp; immunosorbent assay. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc test and paired t-test was done for inter- and intra-group comparison.&nbsp; The optimal cut-off value was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve and by maximization of the Youden index.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean salivary glycated albumin was the highest in diabetic patients followed by non-diabetic periodontitis patients and least in&nbsp; healthy controls. All the intergroup comparisons were significant. A cut-off value of 72.19 ng/ml of salivary glycated albumin could predict&nbsp; diabetic status with a sensitivity and specificity of 75%. Salivary glycated albumin was significantly reduced in a similar manner in&nbsp; both groups after periodontal therapy (19.4% and 18.5%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Periodontitis patients with diabetes mellitus were presented with&nbsp; the highest salivary glycated albumin. Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in a similar reduction of salivary glycated albumin in&nbsp; periodontitis with and without diabetes mellitus.&nbsp;</p> K.M. Seniya, K.V. Baiju, R. Ambil Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical and Histological Comparison of Healing by Steel Scalpel, Diode Laser, and Radiofrequency in Palatal Wound: An Animal Study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Wound healing following periodontal soft tissue procedures can differ owing to different techniques, the feasibility of&nbsp; which can be determined through detailed macroscopic and microscopic observations.</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong>: This study aimed to clinically and&nbsp; histologically evaluate palatal wound healing in rats by secondary intention after excision using a steel scalpel, diode laser, and&nbsp; radiofrequency.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: An excision was made in the edentulous anterior maxilla of 42 4-month-old male Wistar rats&nbsp; weighing 289–428 g. Part of the connective tissue was left in the surgical area to observe the dynamics of secondary intention wound&nbsp; healing. Three experimental groups were established: the steel scalpel, an 810-nm diode laser at a power output of 1.5 W in continuous&nbsp; mode, and a monopolar radiofrequency in a fully rectified waveform at 15 W. Clinical and histological analyses were performed on days 2,&nbsp; 4, and 7. Hemostasis, changes in body weight, defect size, epithelial gap, and inflammatory infiltration were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The&nbsp; epithelial gap closed completely in all groups on day 7. Bleeding occurred significantly more in the scalpel group (P &lt; 0.001). No&nbsp; significant changes were observed in body weight between the groups. Macroscopically, the mean wound area decreased over time in all&nbsp; groups. Wound healing was significantly slower in the laser group on day 2 and in the radiofrequency group on days 4 and 7 (P &lt; 0.001).&nbsp; Microscopically, the laser created the cleanest wound area, with minimal inflammatory infiltration and no thermal injury. More damage&nbsp; occurred in the connective tissue of the radiofrequency group. Wound healing was observed on day 7 in all groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Palatal&nbsp; wound healing with secondary intention yielded different outcomes in a rat model when different techniques were used. However,&nbsp; almost complete healing was observed in all wounds, which highlights the importance of the soft tissue left in the surgical area. Wound&nbsp; healing in periodontal soft tissue procedures is not compromised by different techniques, as long as the clinician has sufficient&nbsp; knowledge and experience.&nbsp;</p> E. Elemek, Y.M. Gelmez, E.R. Hekimoglu, M. Esrefoglu Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 44‑Year Temporal Trends and Causes of Maternal Mortality at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, LUTH, Lagos, Nigeria (1976‑2019) <p><strong>Background</strong>: Nigeria has committed to global initiatives aimed at improving maternal and child health. Institutional audit of maternal&nbsp; mortality over a long period can provide useful information on the trends in maternal death and the impact of interventions.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To&nbsp; evaluate the trends in annual deliveries, maternal mortality ratio and causes of maternal death at a tertiary institution in Nigeria over a&nbsp; period of 44 years (1976–2019).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>s: We conducted a temporal trend analysis of annual births, maternal deaths,&nbsp; maternal mortality ratio (MMR), and ranking of causes of maternal deaths at a Teaching Hospital, in Southwest Nigeria using available&nbsp; data from 1976 to 2019. Overall and segmental annual percent change (APC) of the observed trends were conducted using Joinpoint&nbsp; version software.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Over the 44-year study period, 1323 maternal deaths occurred at approximately 30 maternal deaths per&nbsp; annum. There was a four-fold increase in MMR from 881/100,000 total births in 1976 to 3389.8/100,000 total births in 2019, at an&nbsp; average increase of 3.1% per annum. (APC: 3.1%; P value &lt; 0.001). The leading causes of maternal mortality were hypertension, sepsis,&nbsp; haemorrhage, and abortion, which together contributed to more than 70% of maternal deaths. All the leading causes of maternal deaths except abortion had constant ranking during the study period.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The four-fold increase in MMR at our hospital from 1976–2019&nbsp; is worrying and may suggest that previous efforts at reducing maternal mortality in our institution did not lead to significant&nbsp; improvement toward the attainment of Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3). The hospital increasingly managed complex cases&nbsp;&nbsp; especially the unbooked patients who were referred to the hospital as a last resort.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> J.A. Olamijulo, G. Olorunfemi, H.A. Osman, A.O. Ugwu, J. Omole-Mathew Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Quantification and Comparison of Salivary Neutrophils in Periodontal Health and Disease <p><strong>Background</strong>: Neutrophils continuously migrate into the oral cavity from various sources like gingival crevicular fluid and saliva both in&nbsp; health and in inflammation. The migration of the neutrophils into the various tissues and into the oral cavity occurs when the host&nbsp; microbial interplay tips the balance favoring the initiation of the inflammatory and immune reactions which depending on the amount of&nbsp; the microbial load results in the development of acute and chronic infections in the susceptible host.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The present study was&nbsp; designed to quantify and compare the oral salivary neutrophil levels in patients with gingivitis and chronic and aggressive periodontitis&nbsp; as well as in healthy controls, before and after scaling and root planing (SRP) and to compare the difference within the selected study groups.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Forty subjects were classified into four groups, that is, healthy controls, gingivitis, and chronic and&nbsp; aggressive periodontitis. Oral rinse samples were collected using Hank's balanced salt solution from each patient before and after phase&nbsp; I periodontal therapy. Cells in the rinse samples were stained with Acridine orange, and neutrophil counts were carried out using a&nbsp; fluorescence microscope and a hemocytometer.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Baseline oral salivary neutrophil levels were maximum in the chronic&nbsp; periodontitis group followed by the aggressive group and then the gingivitis group. Oral salivary neutrophil levels also positively&nbsp; correlated to probing pocket depth, plaque index, calculus index, and gingival index in all four study groups. Maximum reduction in the&nbsp; oral salivary neutrophil levels after phase I periodontal therapy was seen in the gingivitis group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: From our study, we&nbsp; conclude that the oral salivary neutrophil levels decreased significantly after SRP. Estimation of changes in the oral salivary neutrophil&nbsp; levels has the potential to aid in monitoring treatment outcomes. Thus, it suggests that it could be used as a simple, noninvasive&nbsp; laboratory technique to monitor the periodontal status and disease progression.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Y.S.H.S. Chakravarthy Reddy, P. Koppolu, D.H. Alotaibi, A.A. Alsinaidi, A.H. Mukhtar, A.A. Kakti, R.K. Abdelrahim, A.S. Lingam Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Utility of CONUT Score in Indolent Lymphoma Patients <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: Similar to the uncertainties in the treatment criteria for indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL), the prognostic&nbsp; criteria have not been fully clarified. The Controlled Nutritional Status (CONUT) score is not only used as a predictor of malnutrition but&nbsp; also indicates prognosis in many chronic or malignant diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive and prognostic&nbsp; significance of the CONUT score in patients with iNHL.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods</strong>: A retrospective evaluation was made of 109 patients with&nbsp; iNHL. The CONUT scores of the patients were compared between those with an indication for treatment and those followed without&nbsp; treatment. The same analysis was performed between patients who developed relapse after treatment. Survival analysis was performed&nbsp; on all patients, and associations between survival and the CONUT score were examined.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The median CONUT score was found to&nbsp; be higher in those who had treatment indications compared to those who did not (2 vs 1; P = 0.014). In the regression model, a CONUT&nbsp; absolute value above 5 was found as an independent risk factor predicting relapse. In the whole study population, a CONUT absolute&nbsp; value &gt;2 predicted the risk of mortality with 53.9% sensitivity and 68.7% specificity (AUC ± SE = 0.639 ± 0.07; +PV = 35%; -PV = 82.6%; P =&nbsp; 0.034).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: CONUT score is a predictive and prognostic factor for patients with iNHL. The development of simple, low-budget&nbsp; prognostic and predictive biomarkers is critical not only for determining the course of the disease but also for follow-up and treatment&nbsp; management.&nbsp;</p> M. Tighoglu, H.B.A. Ozturk, A. Yildiz, P. Tighoglu, F. Yilmaz, M.R. Aras, M. Albayrak Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The İmportance of Hematological Parameters in the Prognosis of Patients with Severe COVID‑19, A Single‑center Retrospective Study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Inflammation biomarkers known as acute phase reactants (APRs) show significant variations in serum concentrations&nbsp; during inflammation brought on by both viral and noninfectious diseases. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), the C-reactive&nbsp; protein (CRP), the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the ferritin, the fibrinogen, the procalcitonin, the D-dimer, and the troponin I are all&nbsp; significant APRs. During inflammation, the serum levels of each of these positive APRs rise. The sensitivity and specificity of hematologic&nbsp; parameters and indices are as high as the inflammatory biomarkers mentioned above for monitoring disease severity and treatment&nbsp; response.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: We aimed to evaluate the differences in hematological parameters and indices, and to reveal their treatment and&nbsp; prognostic values, especially in deceased patients with COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The hemogram parameters of 169 critical patients with COVID-19 (125 males and 44 females) who received inpatient treatment at …. between 1 March 2020 and 31 December 2021&nbsp; were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups—deceased (77) and surviving (92)—noting demographic data&nbsp; such as age and gender. All analyses were performed using SPSS 25.0.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Analyses of the hematological parameters used during&nbsp; the treatment processes revealed statistically significant differences between the two patient groups. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil,&nbsp; and neutrophil‑to‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) values were significantly higher (P = 0.019, P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively) for deceased&nbsp; subjects, while lymphocyte, platelet and plateletcrit (PCT) values were significantly lower (for all values, P = 0.000). Platelet volume (MPV)&nbsp; and platelet distribution width (PDW), as well as MPV/PLT, PDW/PLT, MPV/PCT, and PDW/PCT, levels were significantly higher in deceased&nbsp; subjects (P = 0.000). Particularly in our deceased cases, receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to reveal the&nbsp; importance of such analyses in prognostic status evaluation in COVID‑19 since the hematological parameters are quite different. Cut‑off&nbsp; values were determined for each parameter, and sensitivity and specificity ratios were calculated. While the sensitivities of MPV/PLT,&nbsp; PDW/PLT, MPV/PCT, and PDW/PCT indices are over 80%, neutrophil and white blood cell sensitivities were found to be lower (74%, 68.8%,&nbsp; respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In addition to NLR, which is an important biomarker, the hematological indices MPV/PLT, PDW/PLT, MPV/PCT,&nbsp; and PDW/ PCT can be used to determine the risk of death in patients with severe COVID-19.&nbsp;</p> R. Gozukucuk, H.H. Kilic, B.S. Uyanik, B. Cakiroglu Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Role of the Neck Dissection in Early‑Stage Lower Lip Cancers <p><strong>Background</strong>: In early-stage lip cancer, spread to cervical lymph nodes is extremely rare. Elective neck treatment options include&nbsp; suprahyoid or supraomohyoid neck dissection, sentinel lymph node biopsy, or close follow-up.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: In this study, our aim was to&nbsp; investigate the effect of elective surgery on survival in patients operated for early-stage lip cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Patients who underwent&nbsp; surgical treatment for lower lip squamous cell carcinoma between 2005 and 2020 were&nbsp; retrospectively analyzed. Age, gender, neck&nbsp; dissection status (yes/no), clinical and pathological T stage of the tumor, grade, and&nbsp; perineural invasion were recorded and 3-year and&nbsp; 5-year overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were estimated.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; Thirty patients were included: 20 patients had pT1 and&nbsp; 10 patients had pT2 tumors. Neck dissection was performed in 13 patients. The&nbsp; 5-year OS rate was 90.9% and 87.8% with and without&nbsp; dissection, respectively. Neck dissection did not appear to affect OS (P = 0.534) in&nbsp; these patients. The 5-year DFS rate was 96.4% in the&nbsp; overall group, while it was 91.7% and 100% in patients who did or did not undergo&nbsp; neck dissection, respectively (P = 0.756).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>:&nbsp; Patients with or without neck dissection did not differ significantly in terms of OS&nbsp; and DFS. Watchful waiting with regular ultrasound&nbsp; imaging of the neck in patients with T1 and T2 lip tumors may be an appropriate&nbsp; therapeutic option.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> C.H. Inan, H.O. Yanasma, M. Aslier, O. Saraydaroglu, I. Sahin , O. Basut, F. Kasapoglu, A.O. Ozmen, U.L. Demir, H. Coskun Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Can Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Positions be Selected According to the Functional Status of Pelvic Floor Muscles? <p><strong>Background</strong>: Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training varies according to the functional status of PFM. It is used to strengthen underactive PFM&nbsp; and relax overactive PFM.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to determine the appropriate PFM training positions according to the functional&nbsp; status of the PFM in women with pelvic floor dysfunction.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Seventy-six women diagnosed with pelvic floor&nbsp; dysfunction were included. After the digital palpation, participants were divided into four groups according to the functional status of PFM: normal, overactive, underactive, and nonfunctional. Participants’ PFM and abdominal muscle functions were assessed with&nbsp; superficial electromyography in three positions (modified butterfly pose‑P1, modified child pose‑P2, and modified deep squat with block&nbsp; pose‑P3). Friedman’s analysis of variance and the Kruskal–Wallis test were used to assess whether the function of the muscles differed&nbsp; according to the functional status of the PFM and training positions.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Normal PFM maximally contracted and relaxed in P1,&nbsp; whereas nonfunctional PFM was in P3 (P &gt; 0.05). Overactive and underactive PFM was most contracted in P2 (P &gt; 0.05) and relaxed in P1&nbsp; (P &lt; 0.001). In each functional state of the PFM, all abdominal muscles were most relaxed in P1, while their most contracted positions&nbsp; varied (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study showed that the positions in which the PFM relaxes and contracts the most may vary according&nbsp; to the functional status of the PFM. Therefore, different PFM training positions may be preferred according to the functional status of the&nbsp; PFM in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. However, more study needs to be done in this subject.&nbsp;</p> D.K. Dayican, I. Keser, O. Yavuz, G. Tosun, S. Kurt, O.C. Tosun Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Can Lactate be Valuable in Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Neonatal Sepsis? <p><strong>Background</strong>: Sepsis monitoring tissue perfusion is crucial for detecting circulatory failure early, implementing the right treatments, and&nbsp; assessing response. Insufficient oxygenation leads to a rise in lactate level and has been shown to be useful in predicting mortality and&nbsp; morbidity in newborns. There have not been many studies on how lactate measurement affects neonatal sepsis diagnosis and prognosis.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of our study was to determine the impact of lactate on early diagnosis and prognosis in neonatal sepsis.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Eighty-seven newborns diagnosed with neonatal sepsis at a neonatal intensive care unit between January 2010&nbsp; and July 2021 were included in the study. Venous blood gas, lactate, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and complete blood count on the&nbsp; first, second, and third day of hospitalization were noted. Lactate values were correlated with other variables to determine the impact of&nbsp; hyperlactatemia on morbidity and to determine factors affecting the length of stay. IBM SPSS Statistics version 22.0 for Windows was&nbsp; used to analyze the data (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A strong negative correlation between lactate and oxygenation&nbsp; and perfusion indicators (HCO<sub>3</sub> , BE, PaO<sub>2</sub> ) during the therapeutic process was observed. With treatment, the initial measured lactate&nbsp; value decreased, and a significant increase in CRP and oxygen saturation was observed, which was interpreted as the observation of an&nbsp; early lactate response to infection before a CRP response. The initial lactate level, as well as the change in lactate levels, was not, however,&nbsp; significantly correlated with the length of stay.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Lactate can be used in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and&nbsp; for determining prognosis.&nbsp;</p> F.M. Kislal, C.C. Polat, E. Ergul, A.A. Acikalin, D. Guven, E. Gundogan, D. Sarici Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Open Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Critical Analysis of Patient Presentation and Surgical Outcomes in a Contemporary Series <p><strong>Background</strong>: Open prostatectomy (OP) is still a valid treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but it needs to be&nbsp; constantly reevaluated in the context of minimally invasive treatments (MITs).</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: Our purpose is to present contemporary data on&nbsp; patient presentation and surgical outcomes of OP with which other OP series and MITs can be compared.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A retrospective study&nbsp; of all OP was carried out in our institution from January 2011 to December 2020. All patients had a thorough preoperative workup&nbsp; and optimization of comorbidities before surgery. Data were collected in a predesigned pro forma and analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age&nbsp; of the 148 patients studied was 66.2 (±7.9) yrs. The mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 32.2 (±33.7) mos. The mean&nbsp; preoperative prostate volume was 118.0 (±67.1) cm3 . There was a 54.4% comorbidity rate with diabetes mellitus (DM) topping the list&nbsp; (16.0%). An incidental prostate cancer rate of 6.1% was found. The overall complication rate was 45.3%. Perioperative hemorrhage&nbsp; requiring blood transfusion (BT) was the most common complication (26.1%). There was no significant difference in age, duration of&nbsp; surgery, and prostrate volume between subjects with and without BT (P &gt; 0.05). Wound infection was significantly associated with&nbsp; diabetes (P = 0.043, OR = 3.507, 95% CI = 1.042–11.805). The reoperation rate was 1.4%, and mortality rate was 0.7%. The International&nbsp; Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality-of-life (QOL) score, and post-void residual urine (PVR) volume were significantly improved (P &lt;&nbsp; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: OP was found to be a safe and effective procedure for the relief of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) secondary to&nbsp;&nbsp; BPH. However, it was associated with high morbidity and low reoperation rate.</p> A.O. Obi, C. Odo, D.E. Ogolo, C.J. Okeke, A.O. Ulebe, E.N. Afogu Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Relationship between Social Achievement Goals and Self‑Esteem, Depression and Anxiety among Medical School Students <p><strong>Background</strong>: Social achievement goals such as the desire to receive positive feedback from the social environment or avoid negative&nbsp; feedback are situations that affect an individual’s quality of life and predispose them to mental disorders.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of this study is to&nbsp; investigate the relationship between social achievement goals and self-esteem, depression, and anxiety in medical school students.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: 400 participants, 201 of whom were female volunteers, between the ages of 18-30, studying at the Faculty of&nbsp; Medicine were evaluated. Sociodemographic Data Form, Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck&nbsp; Depression Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory Sub-Scale were applied to the participants.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A negative correlation&nbsp; between social development goals and depression (rs = -0.218, P &lt; 0.001) and anxiety (rs = -0.188, P &lt; 0.001), and a positive correlation&nbsp; with self-esteem (P = 0.002) were found. A statistically significant and positive correlation between social performance‑avoidance goals and depression (rs = 0.233, P &lt; 0.001) and anxiety (rs = 0.245, P &lt; 0.001), and still statistically significant, and negative relationship with&nbsp; self‑esteem (P = 0.001) were found. While social performance-approach goals were positively correlated with anxiety (rs = 0.192, P &lt; 0.001)&nbsp; and depression (rs = 0.108, P = 0.03), no statistically significant correlation was found with self‑esteem (P = 0.129).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It&nbsp; has been seen that our study generally supports the other studies in the literature concerning the relations between social achievement&nbsp; goal subgroups and self-esteem, depression, and anxiety in university students. It will be possible to contribute to the findings with&nbsp; studies encompassing university students from different cities and departments and studies with a large number of participants other&nbsp; than students.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> O. Baskaya, H. Baykan, M. Sahin Can Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Fellow Eye of Retinal Detachment Patients: Vision and Clinical Presentation <p><strong>Background</strong>: The fellow eye of a retinal detachment is at risk of developing a retinal detachment and other visually debilitating disease.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate the rate of bilaterality of retinal detachment (RD), the presenting visual acuity (VA), and the presence of ocular&nbsp; morbidity in the fellow eye of patients with RD.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods</strong>: A multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional study examining the&nbsp; fellow eye of consecutive patients who were diagnosed with different types of RD. The patients were seen within one year and examined&nbsp; in four Nigerian eye hospitals and clinics. Demographics, VA, and clinical findings at the presentation were reported on examination of&nbsp; the fellow eyes.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Twenty-seven (11.4%) out of 237 patients (264 eyes) had an RD in the fellow eye. The mean age of all study&nbsp; patients was 46.2 ± 16.8 years, M/F: 161 (67.9%)/76 (32.1%). The rates of bilaterality for rhegmatogenous, exudative, and tractional RDs&nbsp; were 4.2%, 11.1%, and 31.1%, respectively. Diagnosis of RD in an eye was associated with a risk of developing fellow eye rhegmatogenous&nbsp; retinal detachment (RRD) (P &lt; 0.001) and tractional RD (P &lt; 0.001), respectively. RRD in an eye was associated with a 17% risk of&nbsp; developing RD in the fellow eye (β = −1.6, OR = 0.202, P &lt; 0.001). The BCVA in the fellow eye of the three types of RD varied significantly (P&nbsp; &lt; 0.001). The fellow eye was blind in 25.2% of RRD, 54.1% of tractional retinal detachment (TRD), and 11.1% of exudative retinal&nbsp; detachment (ERD). Bilateral RD eyes were blind in RRD (85.7%), TRD (71.1%), and ERD (50%). One hundred and seven eyes (40.5%) of the&nbsp; total 264 RD eyes studied had other fellow eye events at the presentation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: A patient with an RD in one eye is at significant&nbsp; risk of developing a blinding RD in the fellow eye. This risk varies with the type of RD and is highest with TRD. However, RRD, the&nbsp; commonest type of RD, can benefit from prophylactic treatment to the fellow eye RD predisposing lesions.&nbsp;</p> A. Ibanga, O.N. Okonkwo, W. Ovienria, I. Oyekunle, T. Akanbi, D. Nkanga, C. Agweye, O. Adenuga, M. Udoh, Collaborative Retinal Research Network (CRRN) Study Report Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 What We Learned from Steroid Therapy in the COVID‑19 Pandemic <p><strong>Background</strong>: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a pandemic named coronavirus&nbsp; disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has become the greatest worldwide public health threat. Although different treatment recommendations&nbsp; are offered for COVID‑19 infection, steroid treatment remains important.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of pulse steroid therapy (PST) on inflammatory markers and patient outcomes in moderate/severe COVID-19 pneumonia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: We&nbsp; retrospectively analyzed the patients 18 years and older hospitalized in our hospital’s COVID-19 clinics between April 1, 2020, to June 30,&nbsp; 2020, and July 1, 2021, to November 30, 2021. Patients in the moderate/severe COVID-19 pneumonia category, according to the World&nbsp; Health Organization COVID-19 guidelines, were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of the patients, treatments,&nbsp; inflammatory markers, and patient outcomes (need for intensive care, length of hospital stay, high‑flow nasal oxygen (HFNO)&nbsp; requirement, mechanical ventilation (MV), and mortality rates) were recorded and analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Patients who received PST had&nbsp; more advanced age (P &lt; 0.01), more comorbidities (P &lt; 0.001), and more HFNO need (P &lt; 001) compared with the patients who did not&nbsp; receive PST. There was no statistically significant difference between clinical outcomes: the need for intensive care, length of hospital&nbsp; stay, need for MV, and mortality rates (P = 0.54, P = 0.3, P = 0.14, and P = 0.09, respectively). When we evaluated the unvaccinated patients,&nbsp; there was a statistically significant difference in the MV need and mortality rates between those who received PST and those&nbsp; who did not (P = 0.017, P = 0.014, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It was observed that PST provided similar mortality, ICU, and MV&nbsp; requirements in patients with older age and comorbidities. Lower MV requirements and mortality were observed in the unvaccinated&nbsp; group receiving PST compared with the unvaccinated group not receiving steroids. PST is still promising in COVID-19 infection, and more&nbsp; studies are needed for standard doses and applications.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> A. Yalci, E. Dogan, M.A. Kapici, B.C. Demirkiran, M. Filiz, C. Artuk Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Clinical Signs of Chorioamnionitis with Histological Chorioamnionitis and Neonatal Outcomes in Women with Premature Rupture of Membranes <p><strong>Background</strong>: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM), especially when preterm or prolonged is associated with an increased risk of&nbsp; chorioamnionitis with its attendant feto-maternal complications.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The study was aimed to determine the association of clinical signs&nbsp; of chorioamnionitis with histological chorioamnionitis and neonatal outcomes in women with PROM.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Eligible&nbsp; participants with clinical diagnosis of PROM at gestational age of ≥28 weeks managed between December 2018 and June 2019 were&nbsp; consecutively recruited. Their sociodemographic characteristics, obstetrics history, and evidence of clinical chorioamnionitis using the Gibb’s criteria were obtained. Following delivery, chorioamnionitis was histologically confirmed. Primary outcome measure was the&nbsp; proportion of women with PROM and histological chorioamnionitis that were detected clinically.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 136 participants&nbsp; analyzed, 108 (79.4%) had term PROM, while 28 (20.6%) had preterm PROM (&lt;37 weeks). The prevalence of histological chorioamnionitis&nbsp; was 50.0% compared to 16.2% using clinical indicators of infection. Histological chorioamnionitis was almost two times higher in preterm&nbsp; than term PROM (71.4% vs 38.9%). About two-third (67.6%) of the chorioamnionitis identified histologically were missed using clinical&nbsp; signs of chorioamnionitis. Clinical signs of chorioamnionitis had specificity of 100.0%, but low sensitivity (35.5%) and accuracy of 70.6%. A&nbsp; combination of three symptoms, maternal pyrexia and tachycardia, and fetal tachycardia appears to be the most reliable clinical indicator&nbsp; of chorioamnionitis in women with preterm PROM. There was a significant association between low birth weight, low Apgar&nbsp; score, NICU admission, and the presence of histological chorioamnionitis in women that had PROM.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Clinical signs of&nbsp; chorioamnionitis have a low sensitivity and are not very accuracy in diagnosing chorioamnionitis in women with PROM.&nbsp;</p> Augustine O. Asogwa, Euzebus C. Ezugwu, George Uchenna Eleje, Onwuka I. Chidinma, Felix K. Asogwa, Onyinye C. Ezugwu, Hyginus U. Ezegwui Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Is Testicular Tissue Resection Effective in Testicular Compartment Syndrome? <p><strong>Background</strong>: There have been many testicular losses due to testicular compartment syndrome (TCS). Studies are ongoing to lower the&nbsp; pressure within tunica vaginalis during TCS.</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong>: To provide enough space for reperfusion of the testicular tissue and to reduce&nbsp; intratesticular pressure by resecting testicular tissue in the affected testis for treatment of TCS.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The study was&nbsp; designed as a prospective randomized animal study. A total of 24 Wistar albino adult rats were randomly divided into three groups. After&nbsp; torsion surgery group 1 underwent detorsion + testicular tissue resection (TTR), while only detorsion was performed in group 2. The&nbsp; control group did not undergo any procedures. At the postoperative 5th day all subjects were sacrificed, and their testes were evaluated&nbsp; in terms of histologic findings, apoptosis, and microangiogenesis. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used for analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; According to Johnsen scores, all the groups were statistically different from each other and the damage in group 1 was less than in group&nbsp; 2 (P &lt; 0.05). Factor VIII expressions in surgical groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P &lt; 0.05). However, the surgical&nbsp; groups did not show any significant difference between each other (P &gt; 0.05). Apoptotic cell counts were higher in both surgical groups&nbsp; than in the control group. Also, there was significantly higher apoptotic cell count in group 2 than in group 1 (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The&nbsp; injury secondary to TCS is lower when TTR is performed. In the cases in which tunica vaginalis graft could not be obtained or in the&nbsp; delayed cases, TTR may be useful.&nbsp;</p> M. Canikliogl, U Oztekin, F. Fırat, F. Atac, Z. Doganyigit, A. Okan Oflamaz Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Anxiety and Depression among Pregnant Women in Enugu, Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy are public health concerns. They are commonly reported among&nbsp; pregnant women from all over the world. Maternal mental health has not been prioritized, especially in low- and middle-income&nbsp; countries.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To evaluate depression and anxiety among pregnant women who receive antenatal care in four randomly selected&nbsp; hospitals in Enugu, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A multicenter questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 434 pregnant women&nbsp; was conducted at four selected health institutions offering antenatal services in Enugu, Enugu State. The prevalence of anxiety and&nbsp; depression was assessed using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Factors associated with anxiety and depression were&nbsp; determined using logistic regression. P &lt;0.05 was taken as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age of study participants was 30.09 ± 5.12&nbsp; years. The proportion of participants with depressive symptoms and borderline depressive symptoms was 9.7% and 11.1%, respectively.&nbsp; The proportion of participants with anxiety symptoms and borderline anxiety symptoms was 10.1% and 15.7%, respectively. Husband’s&nbsp; employment status (P = 0.033, odds ratios (OR) =0.354, 95% confidence intervals (CI) =0.137–0.918) and gestational age (P = 0.042, OR =&nbsp; 2.066, 95% CI = 1.028–4.151) were the only factors associated with&nbsp; depressive symptoms, while only educational level (P = 0.001, OR = 3.552, 95% CI = 1.674–7.537) and husband’s employment status (P =&nbsp; 0.013, OR = 0.295, 95% CI = 0.113–0.772) were the only factors associated with anxiety symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Anxiety and depressive&nbsp; symptoms are relatively common in antenatal women in Enugu. The factors associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms were the&nbsp; respondent’s educational level, gestational age, and the employment status of the husband.&nbsp;</p> E.O. Izuka, T.O. Iyidobu, C.E. Obiora-Izuka, J.T. Enebe, A.D. Onyeabochukwu, P.O. Nkwo, U.I. Nwagha Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Scaling Up Numbers and Competency of Graduating Medical and Dental Students in Nigeria: Need to Improve Medical Trainers’ Competency in Teaching <p><strong>Background</strong>: With the increasing medical brain drain in Nigeria, there is a need to train and graduate more doctors to fill in the gaps created to mitigate the effects. To meet this goal, the trainers need to evolve and have the competency to deliver quality training for many more enrollees in medical schools.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to gather information about the perception of medical teachers’ need to obtain certification in medical education and what this will achieve in scaling up the competency and number of graduating medical doctors.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: Medical teachers in Nigeria participated in this mixed (quantitative and qualitative) study. Four hundred medical consultants and teachers were randomly selected and sent a semi-structured pre-validated questionnaire; also, a panel discussion was conducted with six medical teachers with other special assignments in universities and postgraduate colleges. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 24, differences in proportions were calculated using the Chi-square test, and P values &lt;0.05 were considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Two hundred and thirty-eight (59.5%) participants completed the form, 63 (26.5%) had practiced for &lt;5 years, and 114 (47.9%) had &gt;10 years of practice experience. A majority of 168 (70.6%) were physician lecturers in federal or state universities, and 15.5% had obtained certifications of any kind in medical education. Over 80% perceived that medical education training should not be a prerequisite to teach, but a similar percentage believed that faculty medical education training can help scale up the training competency and the number of graduating medical doctors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: To scale up the number and competency of graduating medical doctors, medical teachers need to acquire core teaching competency. The respondents and discussants believe that when these core teaching competencies have been fully developed, it will be easier to increase the number of medical students’ enrollees, teach them their curriculum through innovations, and graduate them with improved competencies.</p> I.E. Yarhere, O. Ogundipe, A. Williams, A.G. Farouk, Y. Raji, V. Makanjuola, M.A.N. Adeboye Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Betahistine Treatment on Dizziness and Anxiety Symptoms of BPPV Patients <p><strong>Background</strong>: Patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) may experience significant deterioration in their quality of life&nbsp; due to dizziness and anxiety symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To evaluate the effect of betahistine add-on therapy on dizziness and anxiety symptoms of&nbsp; BPPV patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Eighty-four patients who were diagnosed as having posterior canal BPPV were included in the&nbsp; study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment regimen: Group 1 included 42 subjects who were treated with&nbsp; the Epley maneuver alone and Group 2 included 42 subjects who received betahistine 48 mg/day for ten days with the Epley maneuver.&nbsp; Dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) and Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) were evaluated at the time of diagnosis and at the control&nbsp; examination on the tenth day.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean before and after treatment DHI scores were 38.8 ± 14.6 and 5.47 ± 6.4 for Group 1 (P &lt;&nbsp; 0.001), and 45.8 ± 21.1 and 10.3 ± 12.9 for Group 2 (P &lt; 0.001). The mean before and after treatment BAI scores were 11.8 ± 6 and 1.33 ±&nbsp; 1.8 for Group 1 (P &lt; 0.001), and 13.6 ± 8.3 and 2.9 ± 3.8 for Group 2 (P &lt; 0.001). There was no significant difference between the before and&nbsp; after treatment DHI and BAI score differences of the two groups (P = 0.27, P = 0.43).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Canalith repositioning maneuvers&nbsp; (CRMs) should be the main treatment modality in the management of BPPV patients and adding on betahistine treatment to CRMs have&nbsp; no impact in the relieving of dizziness and anxiety symptoms.</p> Z.B. Erdur, N. Evran Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of an Immature Incisor Tooth with a Novel Platelet‑Rich Product: A Five‑Year Follow‑Up Case Report <p>This case report presents a five‑year follow‑up and the management of a necrotic, immature incisor tooth treated by a novel platelet-rich&nbsp; plasma/platelet extract solution and platelet‑rich fibrin (PRP–PES/PRF) and the restoration by using a stress-reduced direct composite&nbsp; restoration (SRDC) technique. The patient with a broken maxillary lateral tooth was referred to our clinic. Extra/intra-oral examinations&nbsp; were within normal limits. The nonvital tooth having an apical lesion and open-apical apex was treated with a regenerative endodontic&nbsp; treatment procedure (REP), and further root development with continued apical closure was shown in the follow-ups up to 60 months. In&nbsp; conclusion, the SRDC and PRP–PES/PRF combination can be an opportunity for the teeth requiring post-restoration. In contrast to the&nbsp; treatment strategy susceptible to weakening or fracturing the patient’s tooth root, the REP approach may lead to a better prognosis for&nbsp; the patient’s tooth.&nbsp;</p> M.I.B. Kolcu, H. Yurdakul, S. Belli Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hyperpigmentation on Head and Neck Caused by Polymyxin B: A Rare Case <p>Polymyxin B was widely used to treat drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria and showed a better antibacterial effect. However, it is&nbsp; associated with some side effects. It should be remembered that polymyxin B may cause hyperpigmentation, albeit rare. This is a case&nbsp; report of a 68-year-old male patient who developed hyperpigmentation following treatment of a chest infection with polymyxin B. He was&nbsp; a known patient with chronic kidney diasease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease followed up in the intensive care unit due&nbsp; to acute exacerbation of COPD. Later, polymyxin B treatment was started due to the development of pneumonia caused by the&nbsp; multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. On the second day of polymyxin B treatment, hyperpigmentation developed in the face and neck region. The fact that the patient had chronic kidney disease possibly facilitated the development of skin hyperpigmentation due&nbsp; to the cumulative effect of polymyxin B. Hyperpigmentation which a rare side effect of polymyxin B may occur in those with underlying&nbsp; kidney disease.&nbsp;</p> F. Kaya, E. Tugcugil Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Psoriatic Inflammation‑Induced Atypically Located Venous Thromboembolism: A Case of Immuno‑Thrombosis <p>The immune and hemostatic systems share a common evolutionary origin, both defend against threats to organisms, and inflammation&nbsp; can cause venous thromboembolism. We would like to report a patient with a history of psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease, who&nbsp; has been admitted to our clinic with a swollen right arm and collateral veins visible throughout the right upper arm and right pectoral&nbsp; region, which have been present for almost 2 years. Investigations revealed a thrombus extending from the proximal basilic vein into the&nbsp; axillary and subclavian veins but sparing the superior vena cava. Further investigation was performed to reveal any likely cause other&nbsp; than psoriasis, including malignancy, rheumatological disease, or genetic thrombophilia, but none were revealed. This report illustrates&nbsp; that psoriasis‑related inflammation can cause atypically located venous thromboembolic events.&nbsp;</p> A.T. Guven, Y.Z. Sener, M. Ozdede Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 27 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000