Nigerian Journal of Economic History <p>The Nigerian Journal of Economic History (NJEH) seeks to promote the scholarly study of Africa's and the developing world's past economic issues and events from a diversity of perspectives notably those of History, Economics, and other relevant disciplines. The Journal, which encourages careful formulation of issues and methods, hopes to stimulate discourse among scholars with varied interests and backgrounds.</p> en-US (Prof. C.O. Adesina) (Dr. Joseph I. Osagie, K.S.M.) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 13:51:06 +0000 OJS 60 Iron smelting technology in the Abuja Area in the nineteenth century: an ethno–archaeological perspective The traditional iron smelting technology in the Abuja area of central Nigeria was a technology that was archaeologically dated to about 500 B.C. Considering the importance of this technology especially as it affected agriculture, warefare, trade and state formation, there is the need to examine the nature and state of this industry especially in the nineteenth century, a period when more ethno- archaeological data were available compared to the earlier periods. There exists a lacuna in the state of this industry between the 500 BC and the nineteenth century. This paper, based mainly on and ethno-archaeological research, examines the iron smelting technology in the area by the nineteenth century. It posits that the technology was complex and technical thereby making the industry to be run on a guild system. Also, the smelters were mainly concerned with the production of the blooms while other groups were involved in the blacksmithing activities. Abiye E. Ichaba Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The legal and ethical issues in the techniques of blood transfusion procedure The paper examines the legal and ethical issues that may arise and the principles that should be considered in the clinical practice for the transfusion of red blood cells and plasma into adults and children. Generally, the legal and ethical principles that apply to the medical transfusion therapy are not different from those applicable to any medical interaction or intervention. The main aim of this paper is attempt to maximize good health care delivery with the view of minimizing the risks and complications that may arise as a result of carelessness. Based on its finding the research recommends that, in order to avoid abuse of this very important and sensitive medical procedure, all blood and blood property should be properly screened to ascertain the blood group and Rhesus factor with potential infections before finally transfusing same into the body of the recipient. Utsua T. Peter Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Nigerian Institute For Oil Palm Research (N.I.F.O.R.) on oil palm industry in Nigeria This article examines the impact of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) on oil palm industry in Nigeria. It interfaces of achievements and developmental strides of the Institute on oil palm industry in Nigeria from its was establishment during colonial period as Oil Palm Research Station (OPRS.) in 1939 through to 1950 when its mandate was extended to British West Africa countries as West African Institute for Oil Palm Research (WAIFOR.) up to its present status as Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR). Through research efforts of its highly rated scientists, the Institute has transformed the wild oil palm of the pre-colonial era to the improved and high yielding ones being cultivated in individuals and corporate plantations today. The Institute has also invented simple and cost effective equipment for the processing and preserving palm products such as oil, kernel and palm wine. In recent time, the Institute has extended its research endeavours beyond its original mandate to include date palm, coconut, date palm, coconut palm, Raphia palm and Shea tree. All these efforts have impacted positively on oil palm industry which if sustained, crude palm oil would provide viable source of foreign exchange for the country. The article however concludes that there is need for adequate funding of the Institute by governments at all levels and corporate bodies to enable it achieve the objectives for which it was established. Ehicheoya Innocent Ujadughele, Joseph Inegbenebho Osagie Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Relevance of pottery on traditional African economy: an ethnoarchaeological case study of north-east Yoruba land This study probes the relevance of potteries in archaeological records in the reconstruction of traditional African economy as shown among the people of North-East Yoruba land of Nigeria. The use of ethnoarchaeological paradigms in the study of potteries, which has been employed in this study, can shed immense lights on various aspects of the past. The study of potteries emboldens scientific study of traditional economies. Data from the study show the relevance of pottery analysis on the trado-economy of Africa. It is recommended that economy planners of Africa might need to study the production, distribution and use of pottery wares in the past so as to understand how the ancients lived and flourished. Fr. Paul-Kolade Tubi Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Contributions of Esan women to sustainable economic development and the consolidation of intra and inter-group relations, 1850-1960 This paper highlights aspects of Production amongst Esan Women for Sustainable Economic Development and the Consolidation of Intra and Inter Group Relations between1850-1960: Lesson for Nigeria Still in Search of Economic Relations. This paper is timely due to the dearth of literature on women and their contributions to economic development in the pre-colonial and colonial Nigeria. However, with the use of primary and secondary sources, this paper examines the extent to which Esan women contributed to the sustenance and consolidation of intra and inter group relations and cooperation in the period under consideration. Some of the factors that facilitated the contributions made by women included the culture of the people, introduction of British colonial economy as well as contacts with neighbouring communities. The result of these was that, while the Esan women retained their cultural identity, they tried to diversify their economic basis to meet the challenges of the period between 1850 and1960 and even beyond. Dawood Omolumen Egbefo, Michael Irabor Ibiezugbe Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land Palm trees constituted one of the major tree crops found in Igala land. They were found in abundance and naturally grow like every other wild forest trees in addition to the ones planted by individuals, families and government agencies. Palm oil processing and marketing constituted one of the major occupations of the people as men, women and even the young ones were involved. Apart from its roles as income earning venture, it also added to the nutritional values of foods consumed by individuals and families. Its production and sales helped in building up serious interactions and inter community’s relations between the Igala and various ethnic groups that frequented the markets of the area thereby encouraging inter-group relations among neighbouring communities. This paper attempts a historical narration of the economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land. Musa Yusufu Abdullahi Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Impedes to effective collection of local government revenue and effect on service delivery in Cameroon: an appraisal of the situation in the Wum Central Council, 1965 – 1974 Local Governments have increasingly been granted fiscal autonomy in order for them to be effective in the provision of services to their citizens. However, the inability of these institutions to effectively collect revenue in Cameroon has hampered service delivery. Following the case of the Wum Central Council, the study holds that tax evasion and defaulting, migration and the diversion of revenue to other Local Government areas as well as underpayments of court fines, fees and charges are some of the major factors that have worked against the smooth collection of revenue. Added to these, the failure of the central authorities in paying rents on Local Government buildings occupied by state departments made it impossible for these institutions to achieve their tax collection objectives. Apart from the government and tax payers, the lackadaisical attitudes of tax collectors, concealment, embezzlement and misappropriation of collected revenue became some of the factors that encumbered the proper collection and realisation of revenue in the Local government area. These factors made it impossible for the Wum Central Local Government to effectively deliver services as their budget were in perpetual deficit forcing it to abandon or under provide social and economic services to citizens. In spite of the poor state of Local Government finances and inability to provide services effectively between 1965 and 1974, some strides were made in rejuvenating the efforts of these institutions in that direction. Protus Mbeum Tem Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Economic empowerment and rehabilitation of ex-servicemen in western Nigeria, 1945-1960 The article is premised on the need to illuminate the experience and attempt to empower Second World War ex-servicemen in Western Nigeria economically with the light of historical scholarship. Economic empowerment was the most critical issue in the rehabilitation of the ex-servicemen in Nigeria after the Second World War. The experience of the ex-servicemen in this regard was shaped by the policies of the colonial administration which initially emphasised the payment of pension as well as the disbursement of loans and grants to the veterans. This was followed by an attempt to provide salaried-jobs for them through the Labour Exchange. However, Britain’s wartime fiscal policy of restricted financial commitment to the colonies, coupled with the economic depression that accompanied the war, resulted in the poor implementation of these pecuniary empowerment measures. Skills acquisition was adopted as an alternative approach. Therefore, vocational centres such as Ondo Cooperative Textile Training Centre, Ado-Ekiti Textile Training Centre and Oyo Weaving and Textile Training Centre were opened to teach skills, equip and enable the ex-servicemen take up self-employment. These were also handled with levity and failed to resolve the problem adequately. Consequently, the ex-servicemen explored self-help through public donations, loans from the Nigerian Union of Demobilised Soldiers, and the sale of poppies. This study explores how these developments unfolded in western Nigeria from 1945 to 1960 and also attempts to provide explanation for the rather perfunctory attitude of the British and the ex-servicemen towards most of the rehabilitation programmes. Albert Onobhayedo, Frank Ikpomwonsa Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Cash-less policy in Nigeria: challenges and prospects This paper examines cash-less policy in Nigeria: issues, challenges and prospects. It also highlights appropriate measures to be put in place to ensure its effectiveness and efficiency in its application. In sum, among the relevant issues that need to be resolved with respect to a cashless policy in Nigeria are: consumer protection; fraud detection; transaction monitoring; efficiency in record-keeping; transaction privacy and safety; competitive payment services; equal access to all consumers; and the right of choice of institutions and payment methods as well as overall system supervision. It is hoped that the cashless economy will help to stimulate and accelerate economic activities and development in Nigeria. Christopher E. Ekpu, Joseph Unufe Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Nigerian Marine Department contribution to British colonial economy The paper examines the contributions of the Marine Department to the development of the colonial economy and its impact on the maritime development of Nigeria. It further investigates how the colonial Maritime Department could be described as the chief exploitative instrument used by the British to perpetuate their exploitative policies in the Colonial Nigerian State. The paper relies on both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources were based on oral interviews and archival materials. Secondary sources on the other hand, included literature such as books and newspapers. The oral interviews were recorded and transcribed for analysis. The documentary data were subjected to internal and external criticism for authentication and then to textual and contextual analysis The paper finds out that the activities of the Marine Department opened up the littoral routes through the dredging of Nigeria’s maritime environment for trade between the coastal states and their hinterland counterpart fostering a merger of both economies, paving the way for the colonial economic exploitation of Southern Nigeria. The paper proves that the Marine Department was a significant revenue earner for the colonial administration. This means that it was the Marine Department that opened up littoral routes through the dredging of the maritime floor between coastal and hinterland states and it merged both economies, in the Southern Nigeria. William Abiodun Duyile Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000