Pattern of blood pressure among patients with diabetes mellitus in a tertiary hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a predisposing factor for hypertension. The coexistence of hypertension among diabetic patients in clinical practice increases the risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was aimed to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of diabetic patients and determine the prevalence of hypertension among diabetic patients in the Family Medicine clinic of Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital, Port Harcourt.
Methods: Systematic random sampling was used to recruit 422 eligible patients for this hospital based descriptive cross sectional study. An interviewer administered data was analyzed using the statistical package for social science [SPSS] version 15. Statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05.
Results: A total of 422 participants consisting of 296 males and 126 females. The study age range was 35 – 84 years, with a mean age of 55.6 ±10.3 years. A large number the subjects (333; 78.9%) were found to be hypertensive, of which 227(68.2%) were males and, 106(31.8%) were females. The association of hypertension with diabetes in the participants aged 35-64years, of male gender, and married was not statistically significant (p>0.05), however, the association between hypertension and diabetes among the different educational groups was statistically significant (p=0.012). Participants earning salary of less than N30,000 were about two times at risk of hypertension and the association between hypertension and diabetes among them was statistically significant (p=0.008).
Conclusion: The prevalence rate of hypertension among the diabetics was lower in patients with tertiary education and higher income above ₦30,000. Large scale epidemiological studies are required to ascertain the causes of the high prevalence of hypertension among our patients. Detection and treatment of pre-diabetes and pre-hypertension through periodic surveillance is very imperative for the early intervention and delay of disease progression.
Keywords: Pattern, Patients, Blood pressure, Diabetes mellitus, Tertiary hospital