Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with peptic ulcer disease in Kano, Nigeria
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection has been identified as an important risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and is probably the most important cause of relapse in those previously treated for peptic ulcer disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of Helicobacter pylori infection as risk factor for peptic ulcer disease at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano, North-Western Nigeria. Methods: This was a hospital based cross sectional study and conducted over a two year period. 234 Consecutive patients who consented to the study with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease at the Endoscopy Unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano were recruited. 267 patients who had endoscopy within the study period for dyspepsia but with normal endoscopic findings were recruited as controls. Three gastric antral and two body biopsies were taken from each patient, and histological evaluation for presence of Helicobacter pylori was done using haematoxilin/eosin and modified Giemsa stains. Results: The mean age of patients with peptic ulcer disease was 37.9+ 16.3 years while that of patients with normal endoscopic finding was 37.7+ 17 years. The male to female ratio of patients with peptic ulcer disease was 1.25: 1. Helicobacter pylori infection was found in 96.3% and 88.7% of patients with duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer respectively. Although 79.4% of those with normal endoscopic findings also had Helicobacter pylori infection, the difference between those with peptic ulcer disease and those with normal endoscopic findings was significant; ÷2 =19.42 p value < 0.0001. Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori infection is significantly associated with peptic ulcer disease in Kano Nigeria. Patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia also have, to a lesser extent a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection.
Keywords: Peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori, Kano.