Epidemiology of subtypes of HPV type 16 and 18 in Abuja metropolis
Background: Worldwide , invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the second most common cancer in women which is a matter of great concern. Approximately 470,000 new cases and 230,000 deaths occur annually. Eighty percent of Invasive Cervical-Cancer related deaths occur in developing countries. The incidence of ICC is highest in Latin America, the Caribbean, Subsaharan Africa and South Asia and considerably lower in North America and Western Europe. The sole aetiology has been pegged to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).
Method: Three thousand eight hundred and eighty five [3,885] completely randomized samples of cervical, prostate, seminal fluid and anal tissues were obtained by first administering informed consent research questionnaires to the subjects and the health service providers. Koilocytes were qualitatively assayed for using the Haematoxylin and Eosin staining techniques; positive samples were further assayed using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the post PCR assays(Southern Blotting Assay). Bioinformatics methods were adopted from gene bank to create molecular genetic information of other related high risk HPV types compared with types 16 & 18 specifically assayed for using the relevant primers and probes. The forward primer was AJ HPV For 5 1 TTT GTT ACCCT GTTG GTA GAT ATA CTA C 31 and the reverse Primer was ; AJ HPV Rev 51 GAA AAA TAA ACT GTA AAT CAT ATT----31 ; These were used alongside their appropriate probes.
Result: The results showed that in male cohort, HPV type 18 E7 had total prevalence of 17/100(17%) (Prostatic tissue14/100 (14% ) and anal tissue 3/100 ( 3%) . In female cohorts, type 18 E7 had total of Cervical tissue scrapings 100/900 and Anal tissue 10/900 (12.2%). HPV type 18 E6 had total prevalence of 28/100 (28%) Prostatic tissue 24/100 (24%) and anal tissue 4/100 (4%) . In female cohorts, type 18 E6 had total of Cervical tissue scrapings 170/900 and Anal tissue 22/900 (22.2%). HPV type 16 E7 in male cohort had total prevalence of 17.0/100 (17.0%) Prostatic tissue 15.0/100 (15.0%) and anal tissue 2.0/100 (2.0%) . In female cohorts, type 16 E7 had total of Cervical tissue scrapings 110/900 and Anal tissue 10/900 (13.0%). HPV type 16 E6 had total prevalence of 24/100 (24%) ( Prostatic tissue 20/100 (20%) and anal tissue 4/100 (4%). In female cohorts, type 16 E6 had total of (Cervical tissue scrapings 170/900 and Anal tissue 60/900 (25.5%). Bioinformatics analysis using CLC FREE WORK BENCH revealed that some queried sample sequences aligned perfectly with standard isolates sequences. In Abuja metropolis, we had subtypes similar to the standard HPV 16 and 18 isolates used in the assay.
Conclusion: HPV types 18 and 16 are predominant in Abuja Metropolis as these samples were randomly collected from different locations, Wuse, Asokoro, Garki, Gwagwalada, and Abaji all in FCT, Nigeria. These were found in significant proportion (P<0.05) in archival Male cohorts prostatic tissues contrary to the expectations of most clinicians.