Epidemiology of subtypes of HPV type 16 and 18 in Abuja metropolis

  • OJ Ajobiewe
  • NR Isu
  • S Agwale
  • HF Ajobiewe
  • A Dangana
Keywords: Human papilloma virus, CLCFREE WORK BENCH, Prostate, Anal, Cervical

Abstract

Background: Worldwide , invasive  cervical    cancer (ICC) is the second most common  cancer  in women  which is a matter of great concern. Approximately 470,000 new cases  and 230,000 deaths occur  annually. Eighty percent of Invasive Cervical-Cancer related deaths occur in developing countries. The incidence of ICC is highest  in Latin  America, the Caribbean, Subsaharan  Africa and South  Asia and considerably lower in North America and Western Europe. The sole aetiology has been pegged to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).
Method: Three thousand eight  hundred  and eighty five [3,885] completely randomized  samples  of cervical, prostate, seminal fluid and anal  tissues  were obtained  by first administering informed consent research questionnaires to the subjects and the health service providers. Koilocytes  were qualitatively assayed for  using the Haematoxylin and Eosin staining techniques; positive samples were further assayed using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the post PCR assays(Southern Blotting Assay). Bioinformatics methods  were adopted from gene bank to create molecular genetic information of other related high risk HPV types compared with types 16 & 18 specifically assayed for using the relevant primers and probes. The  forward primer  was  AJ HPV For 5 1 TTT GTT ACCCT GTTG  GTA GAT  ATA  CTA  C 31 and  the reverse Primer was ; AJ HPV Rev 51 GAA AAA TAA  ACT GTA AAT CAT  ATT----31 ; These were used alongside their appropriate probes.
Result: The results showed that in male cohort, HPV type 18  E7 had total prevalence of 17/100(17%) (Prostatic tissue14/100 (14% ) and anal tissue 3/100 ( 3%) . In female cohorts, type 18 E7   had total  of  Cervical  tissue scrapings  100/900  and Anal tissue 10/900 (12.2%). HPV type 18  E6 had total prevalence of 28/100 (28%)  Prostatic tissue 24/100 (24%) and anal tissue 4/100 (4%) . In female cohorts, type 18 E6 had total  of Cervical tissue scrapings  170/900  and Anal tissue 22/900 (22.2%). HPV type 16 E7 in male cohort had total prevalence of 17.0/100 (17.0%)  Prostatic tissue 15.0/100 (15.0%) and anal tissue 2.0/100 (2.0%) . In female cohorts, type 16 E7 had total of Cervical  tissue scrapings  110/900  and Anal tissue 10/900  (13.0%). HPV type 16  E6 had total prevalence of 24/100 (24%) ( Prostatic tissue 20/100 (20%) and anal tissue 4/100 (4%). In female cohorts, type 16 E6 had total of (Cervical  tissue scrapings  170/900 and Anal tissue 60/900 (25.5%). Bioinformatics analysis using CLC FREE WORK BENCH revealed that some queried sample sequences aligned perfectly with standard isolates sequences. In Abuja metropolis, we had subtypes similar to the standard HPV 16 and 18 isolates used in the assay.
Conclusion: HPV types 18 and 16  are predominant  in  Abuja Metropolis as these samples were randomly collected from different locations, Wuse, Asokoro, Garki, Gwagwalada, and Abaji all in FCT, Nigeria. These were found in significant proportion (P<0.05) in  archival Male cohorts prostatic tissues contrary to the expectations of most clinicians.

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eISSN: 1118-4647
print ISSN: 1118-4647