Antimicrobial Activities and Cellular Toxicity of Ethanol and Methanol Extract of Ocimum Gratissumum from Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria
Antimicrobial effects of ethanol and methanol extracts of Ocimum gratissimum from against three (3) bacteria -E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from urine; two (2) typed bacterial strains – E.coli (ATCC 117755) and S. aureus (ATCC 12600); and six (6) fungi isolates - Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillin specie, Candida albicans [skin] and Candida albicans [HVS]), respectively was investigated using agar well diffusion technique. Cellular toxicity testing was carried out using Human group O red cells. Lower MICs of both extracts were observed more effective against bacterial isolates; whereas fungi isolates were susceptible at higher MIC values. P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible bacteria with 10.0 and 9.3% inhibition ZID at MICs - 1.20 and 0.76 µg/ml for the ethanol and methanol extracts, respectively; while C. albicans (skin ) was the most susceptible fungi with 19.1 and 16.7% inhibition ZID at MICs -9.72 µg/ml (ethanol extract) and 6.16 µg/ml (methanol extract), respectively. Non-clinical fungi (Penicillin species and A. flavus) exhibited a higher susceptibility to both extract than the dermatophytes tested (T. rubrum and M. gypseum). Also, both extracts showed no observable lytic effect against Human group O red cell, suggesting safety of the oil either in part or whole, for potential consumption and in vivo clinical use.
Keywords: O. gratissimum; Antibacterial, Anti fungal, Cellular toxicity.
Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 6 (2) 2007: pp. 33-38