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Physico-chemical and Microbial Studies on Sachet Water consumed in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria
Sixty samples of twenty brands of sachet water were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. The parameters determined were appearance, odour, pH, conductivity, acidity, alkalinity, total hardness, sulphate, chloride, iron, lead, arsenic, zinc and total bacterial count. All the samples were clear in appearance without objectionable odour. The pH values of seventeen brands (85%) were within the W.H.O. limits. The conductivities of only three brands (15%) were within the limits while the values of acidities for all the brands were above the recommended limit. The values of alkalinity of three brands (15%) and total hardness for fourteen brands (70%) were within the limits. All the values of sulphate and chloride were below the W.H.O. limits. Eight brands (40%) had values within the recommended limits for iron, sixteen (80%) within the limit for lead, thirteen (65%) within the limit for arsenic and all brands were within the limit for zinc. Only seven brands (35%) had zero coliform count while four brands (20%) had high bacterial load with coliform counts between 4.00 ± 0.34 and 6.00 ± 0.50/100cm3. Measures which can improve the quality of ‘pure water’ are proposed.