Maternal genital tract colonization and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Streptococcus agalactiae: - a modality for intrapartum prophylactic treatment in jos
Background: Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) has been established as a normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract from where it continually colonizes the vagina and serves as a potential cause of neonatal infections. This necessitated this study to determine the carriage rate among pregnant women.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the anogenital colonization and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from women receiving health care at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH).
Materials and Methodology: This was a hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study of 200 pregnant women and 100 non-pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) and Gynaecology clinic at the Jos University Teaching Hospital respectively, between July 2017 and November 2017. High vaginal and anorectal swabs were collected from the subjects. The specimens were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility testing of the GBS isolates determined. The results obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 21.
Results: The age range (standard deviation) of the pregnant women was between19-48(±7.2) years with an average age of 31.2 years. The overall prevalence rate of GBS among the study participants was 6.3%. Pregnant and non-pregnant women were positive in 6.5% and 6.0% respectively.
The highest colonization rate was found in the maternal age-group 16-20years (11.1%), followed by age-group>40years (10.0%). Low colonization rate of 2.2% was observed among maternal age group 36-40years.Of the 100 non-pregnant women recruited as control for this study, they had age range of 16 years to 48 years with a mean age of 33.4 years (SD ± 6.1). Approximately, 6.0% of the 100 non-pregnant women enrolled were cultured positive for GBS colonization. There was no statistically significance between GBS colonization between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. All the Isolates were sensitivity to penicillin, erythromycin, and clindamycin while 5.3% were resistant to ampicillin, 10.5% to ceftriaxone and 21.1% to vancomycin.
Conclusion: This study showed that GBS colonization rate among the study population was 6.3%. Approximately, 6.5% and 6.0% prevalence rate was found among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. All the isolates were sensitive to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. A total of 21.5% of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Ceftriaxone and ampicillin resistant was demonstrated in 10.5% and 5.3% respectively.
Keywords: Streptococcus agalactiae, colonization rate, pregnant women, antibiotic susceptibility