Mortality pattern among tuberculosis patients on treatment in Nigeria: A systematic review and meta-analysis

  • B.M. Musa
  • H.A. Bashir
  • A.E. Uloko
  • M.A. Garbati
  • B. Bakki
  • H.S. Gumi
  • A. Yusuf
  • Manga H. Bello


Background: Tuberculosis (TB) has continued to be associated with a substantial number of deaths, even in the era of effective antimicrobials. Nigeria is one of the countries with a high tuberculosis burden and has sub-optimal documentation of TB related deaths. Vital statistics/registration is not robust, and mortality surveys are rarely undertaken. In this study, we aimed to determine a precise estimate of TB related deaths on treatment and the trends in death rate while on TB treatment in Nigeria.

Methods: We searched electronic databases for eligible studies from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2017. We generated pooled death rate estimates using random-effects models and determined trends using meta-regression.

Results: We identified 546 studies, of which 28 fulfilled the criteria for quantitative analysis. Overall, studies reported on 64,999 individuals. The pooled TB death rate during treatment was 6.6% (95% CI; 5.2-8.1%). There was a non-significant rise in TB related deaths on treatment of 0.2% per year (p-value = 0.454).

Conclusion: We found a low TB related deaths on treatment, death rate and slight temporal rise over the study years. There is a need for continuous vital registration, including TB related death, and mortality survey among TB patients.