COVID‑19 at the Community Level: What are the Countermeasures?
Although several efforts have been implemented to prevent and control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic at the population level, varying outcomes have been reported in several quarters, despite the implementation of socio‑behavioral methods commonly at the population level to stop the human‑to‑human transmission. We did a narrative review of relevant articles of identified countermeasures at the population level, for curbing the COVID‑19 pandemic. The key ﬁ ndings were evidence measures such as physical distancing, quarantine, isolation, screening, active case detection, and risk communication if properly implemented. Other countermeasures identified were air disinfection and lockdown restrictions. Air disinfection has a potentially harmful effect on humans, while lockdown restrictions have been counterproductive in many settings. In conclusion, many of these public health measures are with peculiarities and needs to be contextualized to be effective in curbing the pandemic. Further research and regular assessments are needed on the countermeasures.
Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019, pandemic, prevention, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2