Pediatric Thyroid Disorders in Two Teaching Hospitals in South‑West Nigeria
Background: Normal thyroid function is essential for optimal physical growth and neurocognitive development in children. Thyroid disorder is the second most common cause of paediatric endocrine diseases. Undetected hypothyroidism in children is a major preventable cause of neurocognitive disability. Down syndrome patients constitute a significant proportion of congenital hypothyroidism.
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe and compare the pattern of pediatric thyroid disorders seen at EKSUTH and LTH.
Materials and Methods: The index study is a descriptive study of all children managed for Pediatric thyroid disorders at EKSUTH and LTH over a 10 year period from March 2010 to March 2020.
Results: Twenty four children presented with thyroid disorder accounting for 12.7% of the total 189 endocrine patients managed in both health facilities. The mean age at presentation was 4.9 years (age range: 3 months to 14 years). Majority, 13 (54.2%), were aged less than 5 years at presentation. M:F =1:1. Hypothyroidism was the most common thyroid disorder, accounting for 91.7% of all thyroid disorders, seen at the two Teaching Hospitals. Congenital hypothyroidism (58.3%) was the most common type of hypothyroidism and Down syndrome accounted for 57.1% of all the children with congenital hypothyroidism. Majority, 87.5%, of the patients were managed successfully with Levothyroxine while one patient with suspected malignant thyroid mass had thyroidectomy and was also given Levothyroxine.
Conclusion: Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common pediatric thyroid disorder at EKSUTH and LTH.
Keywords: Down syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, pediatrics, thyroid disorders