Eclampsia: A Five-year Retrospective Review in Sagamu, South-West Nigeria
Context: Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This is the result of poor health-seeking behavior of pregnant women and inadequate comprehensive emergency obstetric services. This study reviewed the presentation and management of eclampsia in Sagamu over a 5‑year period.
Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence, pattern of clinical presentation and fetomaternal outcomes of eclampsia.
Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study conducted in Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital Sagamu, Ogun state.
Subjects and Methods: Relevant information was retrieved from case notes of all patients who presented with eclampsia from January 2014 to December 2018. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.
Results: Out of the 4656 deliveries, there were 45 cases of eclampsia giving a prevalence of 0.97%. The modal age was 20–24 years. Majority were unbooked 41 (91.1%) and 29 (64.4%) of the women were nulliparas. Antepartum eclampsia was commonest occurring in 36 women (80%). The most common premonitory symptom was headache occurring in as high as 37 women (82.2%). Most of the patients 37 (84.4%) had an abdominal delivery. There were two maternal mortalities (4.4%) and four perinatal deaths (8.9%). There was no statistically significant association between factors such as booking status, type of eclampsia, mode of delivery and parity, and the fetal outcome (APGAR score at 1 min).
Conclusions: Eclampsia is still one of the preventable causes of maternal and perinatal mortality in our environment. The prevalence of eclampsia in sagamu was 0.97%. Improved health-seeking behavior, antenatal care monitoring, and prompt diagnosis and management of preeclampsia will invariably reduce the prevalence of eclampsia.
Keywords: Eclampsia, maternal, morbidity, mortality, perinatal