Determinants of Outcome in Febrile Children Admitted into the Emergency Rooms of Two Tertiary Hospitals in Enugu Southeast Nigeria
Introduction: Febrile illnesses have continued to be the highest causes of mortalities in children admitted to the children emergency rooms
in Nigeria. This study was carried out to review the determinants of outcome in children admitted for febrile illness into the emergency rooms
of two tertiary institutions in Enugu, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 335 children who presented with fever to the emergency rooms over one year (January–December 2018). Their case records were retrieved, and the necessary information was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis included odds ratio and Chi‑square test.
Results: The mean age of the children was 43.20 ± 50.30 months. The mean temperature at presentation was 38.2°C ± 0.9°C. Fever of 39.0°C or above at presentation and fever duration of >2 days were significantly associated with fatal outcome. Children residing in rural areas or referred from other health facilities were more likely to die. The risk of dying from fever was highest when it was associated with diarrhea, weakness, pallor, convulsions, unconsciousness, and difficult/fast breathing.
Conclusion: Most of the factors responsible for mortality in febrile children are largely preventable and treatable
when the presentation is early.
Keywords: Determinants, emergency room, febrile children, Nigeria, outcome