Pattern of Perioperative Cardiac Arrests at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital
Perioperative cardiac arrests and death on the table represent the most serious complications of surgery and anaesthesia. This paper was designed to study their pattern, causes and outcomes following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and intensive care unit (ICU) management in our institution. Three year retrospective review of perioperative cardiac arrests and death on operating table following surgical procedure under anaesthesia. For each cardiac arrest or death on the table the sequence of events leading to the arrest was evaluated using case notes, anaesthetic chart and ICU records. Study variables which include demographic data, ASA score, anaesthetic technique, causes and outcome were analysed and discussed. Fourteen perioperative cardiac arrests were encountered following 4051 anaesthetics administered
over the three year study period. Twelve out of the fourteen cardiac arrests occurred following general anaesthesia, while the remaining two occurred following spinal anaesthesia. There was no cardiac arrest following
local anaesthesia. Children suffered more cardiac arrest than adults.ASAclass III and IV risk status suffered more arrests than ASA I and II. Hypoxia from airway problems was the commonest cause of cardiac arrest followed by septic shock. Monitoring with pulse oximeter was done in
only 4 out of the 14 cardiac arrests. Only 2(14%) out of 14 cardiac arrests recovered to home discharge, one of them with significant neurological deficit. Majority of arrests were due to hypoxia from airway problems that were not detected early. There is need to improve on patient monitoring, knowledge of CPR and intensive care so as to improve the outcome of
perioperative cardiac arrest.
Keywords: Cardiac arrest, Perioperative period, Anaesthesia.