Antiretroviral Drug Resistance- implications for HIV/AIDS reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries
AbstractAbstract: Background: The introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s has significantly reduced morbidities and prolonged the lifespan of people living with HIV. However, the emergence of resistance to the antiretroviral drugs is becoming a major cause of treatment failure. While the problem of drug resistance is being tackled in developed countries, not much seem to be done in this regard in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. This review looked at the regional distribution of HIV groups and subtypes and how this has affected the pattern of antiretroviral resistance.
Methods: The review was sourced from papers presented at international conferences on HIV/AIDS and rational drug use, relevant journals and Medline search using the keywords- Antiretroviral drugs, drug resistance, HIV subtypes and resistance testing. Results: The types, groups, subtypes, sub-subtypes and recombinant forms of HIV-1 have been identified according to their geographical distributions. The evolution of HIV viral mutations, process (es) involved in development of primary and secondary antiretroviral drug resistance, including the role of HIV genetic polymorphisms, and transmitted resistance have been discussed. Conclusion: The pitfalls in the current resistance testing based on HIV-1 subtype B have been highlighted. The design of resistance testing algorithm based on HIV-1 subtype non-B has been suggested for the developing world.