Epidemiology of gastric cancer in jos university teaching hospital jos a 20 year review of cases
AbstractBackground: Gastric cancer believed to be rare in the past in Africa, is now one of the leading cancer morbidity and mortality. It is now known gastric cancer is 2-3 times higher in males than females living in the same environment. We aim to describe the comprehensive histological characteristics of gastric cancer with age and sex distribution.
Methods: The study site was Jos University Teaching Hospital situated in the capital of Plateau State. The hospital has a bed capacity of 530. The study materials were obtained from all stained specimens of gastric
cancer recorded in the histopathology laboratory of the teaching hospital between 1985 to 2004. The biopsy site was noted. These were divided into the following groups: Cardia, body and an thrum/pyloric regions respectively. Or the information included age and sex of the patients.
Results: There were a total of 205 gastric cancer histological confirmed, out of 5705 malignant tumours recorded in the same period. There were a total of 145 cases in male and 60 in females giving a male: female
ratio 2.4:1. The highest frequencies of gastric cancers were located in the anthral and cardia regions which accounted for 79% of all the tumours. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma (intestinal type) was the most frequent histological subtypes 51.2%), this was followed by poorly and diffusely infiltrating carcinoma. Other cancers included signet ring carcinoma, Non-
Hodgkin's lymphoma and leiomyosarcoma in that order. The study has also demonstrated H pylori at the background of intestinal type adenocarcinoma which was seen in the body and an thrum.
Conclusion: The study has shown that gastric cancer is not only common but it occur more males than females. The high proportion of H pylori in our environment might indicate a possible aetiological association. Therefore eradication of H pylori might reduce the prevalence of gastric carcinoma.