Mid-facial Fractures: A 5-year Retrospective Review in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital
Objective: The aim of this study is to establish the pattern and aetiology of mid-facial fractures, of patients seen and treated at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria over a 5-year period.
Materials and Methods: All cases of mid-facial fractures diagnosed and treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos between January 2004 and December 2008 were reviewed. Data collected from case records of patients included age, sex, aetiology of fracture, anatomic site of fracture, associated maxillofacial fracture, types of treatment and postoperative complications.
Results: The leading cause of mid-facial fractures was road traffic crashes (RTC) which occurred in 93% of cases, followed by falls (3.8%) and gunshot (2.6%). The highest incidence of mid-facial fractures (36.5%) occurred in the age group of 21-30 years and the lowest in the age group of 60 years and above (2.6%); with male preponderance in nearly all age groups. Female patients were significantly younger than their male counterparts (P=0.000). The most common site of mid-facial bone fractures was the zygomatic complex (n=89, 44.5%), followed by dento-alveolar (n=26, 13%), and Le fort II (n=23, 12%). Conservative management of the fractures was employed in 2.6% (n=4) of the cases while 97.4% (n=152) of the patients required surgical intervention.
Conclusions: Mid-facial fractures were most common in the 3rd decade of life; with a male-to-female ratio of 3.7: 1. Over 93% of the cases were due to road traffic crashes. Zygomatic complex was the most commonly fractured site. The fact that road traffic crashes still remain the major cause of mid-facial fracture in the studied environment is an indication that the enforcement of legislation to prevent road traffic crashes needs to be re-emphasised.
Keywords: Mid-facial fractures; Lagos; Nigeria