ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF NIGERIAN EUPHORBIACEAE PLANTS 1: PHYLLANTHUS A-MARUS AND PHYLLANTHUS MUELLERIANUS LEAF EXTRACTS
AbstractIn vitro antimicrobial properties of leaf chloroform and methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus muellerianus using human pathogenic microorganisms (6 bacteria and 2 fungi) were evaluated respectively. The leaf methanol extract of P. amarus and the leaf chloroform extract of P. muellerianus exhibited antimicrobial properties. The leaf methanol extract of P. amarus displayed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive), Streptococcus pyogenes (gram positive), Escherica coli (gram negative) and Proteus sp (gram negative) in the agar cup plate diffusion technique, exhibiting greater antibacterial activity with three of the microorganisms than the reference compound ampicillin. The chloroform extract of P. muellerianus on the other hand, displayed sensitivity higher than P. amarus against Candida albicans but inhibited the growth of only Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Escherica coli (gram negative). The antibacterial study of the leaf extracts of both plants showed that the leaf methanol extract of P. amarus exhibited a concentration dependent activity against four of the microorganisms used in the study while P. muellerianus inhibited two of the microorganisms at high concentrations only.
Key Words:Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus muellerianus, Euphorbiaceae, antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial .
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine Vol.7 2003: 9-12