Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine <em>Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine</em> is published by the Nigerian Society of Pharmacognosy, a non profit organisation established in 1982 dedicated to the promotion of Pharmacognosy, Natural Products and Traditional Medicine. It has a current circulation of about 500 to scientists in Nigeria and abroad. The journal is produced once a year and had been in production since 1996. Articles published cover phytomedicine, natural product chemistry and biochemistry, pharmacognosy and traditional medicine, ethnoveterinary medicine and chemistry, clinical studies among others. en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. (J. M.Agbedahunsi Ph.D.) (S.A. Adesanya Ph.D.) Thu, 14 Sep 2023 13:32:03 +0000 OJS 60 Isolated compounds from <i>Alternanthera dentate</i> (Moench) stuchlik leaf extracts and their antimicrobial effects <p><em>Alternanthera dentata</em> leaf extracts are used to treat infectious diseases such as skin diseases in folk medicine. This study isolated and evaluated activities of its bioactive compounds. <em>A. dentata</em> crude leaf extract obtained from 80% methanol was partitioned with n-hexane,&nbsp; dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol respectively. The four fractions obtained were assayed for their antimicrobial&nbsp; activities against reference and clinical bacteria and fungi strains using agar dilution and micro-well dilution methods. Activity directed&nbsp; fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction afforded two compounds and their structures elucidated using NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic&nbsp; data. The results of the antimicrobial assays showed that the ethyl acetate fraction had the best activities. This fraction afforded two&nbsp; compounds identified as 7-O-flavone glycosides: chrysoeriol-7-O--glucoside (<strong>1</strong>) and apigenin-7-O--glucoside (<strong>2</strong>) from the spectroscopic&nbsp; data. The compounds are reported from A. dentata extracts for the first time. Compound <strong>1</strong> showed moderate to weak antimicrobial activities against some of the selected organisms though better than compound 2. It had MIC of 0.63 mg/mL against <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>&nbsp; (ATCC 1263), <em>Escherichia coli</em> (ATCC 700727) and clinical strain of Methicillin Resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) and 2.50 mg/mL&nbsp; against <em>Candida pseudotropicalis</em>. Structure Activity Relationship Studies (SARS) of the antimicrobial properties of compounds <strong>1</strong> and<strong> 2</strong>&nbsp; indicated that the relative potency of compound <strong>1 </strong>when compared with compound<strong> 2</strong> is due mainly to the presence of 3' methoxylation of&nbsp; its ring B. This study concluded that, of the two compounds isolated, chrysoeriol-7-O--glucoside (<strong>1</strong>) contributes more to the&nbsp; antimicrobial activities of the plant.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> B.O. Olorungbeja, E.O. Akinkunmi, R.A. Adigun, M.A. Aderogba Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An overview of ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacological action of selected medicinal plants <p>The plants<em> Acorus calamus, Withania somnifera, Clitoria ternatea, Centella asiatica, Wedillia chinensis, Cissus quadrenqularis</em> are the commonly used plants in South India in day-to-day life as part of food as well as to treat many diseases as traditional medicine, Cassytha filiformis is&nbsp; a parasite herb which is used in many parts of the world for traditional medicine. Like food, these are consumed for immunity, energy,&nbsp; vitamin and mineral sources as well as home remedies for certain health conditions. As a medicine, these plants have many&nbsp;&nbsp; Phytochemical constituents which are the reason for their biological activity. Various secondary metabolites were found from these&nbsp; plants including Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Saponins, Tannins, Flavonoids, etc and multiple biological activities were established by in-vivo and&nbsp; in vitro studies so far. In the future also, studies need to be carried out to bring effective medicines to cure various new diseases in&nbsp; humans. </p> R. Nithya, Bincy Raj, Prasanth Tiwari Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro anti-ulcer activity and isolation of 5 – hydroxymethyl furan – 2 – carbaldehyde and palmatine from <i>Curculigo pilosa (schumach. & thonn.)</i> Engl. <p><em>Curculigo pilosa</em> <em>(Schumach. &amp; Thonn.)</em> Engl. (Hypoxidaceae) is commonly used in traditional medicine in the management of several&nbsp; ailments. The rhizome is traditionally used for treating gastrointestinal diseases. The present study focuses on the in vitro anti-ulcer&nbsp; activity of <em>Curculigo pilosa</em> and isolation of compounds. Powdered rhizomes of the plant were extracted with methanol. The extract was&nbsp; successively partitioned into n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol and aqueous fractions. Fractions were&nbsp; screened for antacid and urease inhibitory activities using titrimetric method and urease inhibitory assay with sodium bicarbonate and&nbsp; acetohydroxamic acid used as standards. Compounds were isolated from active fractions of the plant using chromatographic techniques.&nbsp; Structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. Only compound 1 was evaluated for&nbsp; urease inhibitory and antacid. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnet multiple comparison test at P  0.05. The n hexane&nbsp; and aqueous fractions were active in comparison with standard drug acetohydroxamic acid for urease inhibitory assay, while the ethyl&nbsp; acetate and n butanol fractions gave good antacid activities which were comparable to the activity exhibited by sodium bicarbonate.&nbsp; 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furancarbaldehyde (1) and Palmatine (2) were isolated for the first time in <em>Curculigo pilosa</em> and new to family&nbsp; Hypoxidaceae. 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furancarbaldehyde (1) displayed excellent antacid activity. Few compounds have been isolated from&nbsp; this plant despite the numerous reported biological activities. The antacid and the urease inhibitory activities are reported for the first&nbsp; time.&nbsp; </p> Idayat Adeola Akinwumi, Mubo Adeola Sonibare, Majid Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mineral composition and antioxidant analysis of the leaves of monkey’s potato (Solenostemon monostachyus</i> (P. Beauv) Briq)<i> <p>This study investigated the mineral composition and antioxidant potentials of the leaves of Monkey’s Potato (<em>Solenostemon monostachyus</em> (P. Beauv.) Briq.) The leaves of <em>S. monostachyus</em> used in this study were collected from the Biological garden at College of Education,&nbsp; Warri, Delta State. Standard methods were employed to determine the composition of minerals and antioxidant capacity of <em>S.&nbsp; monostachyus</em>. The results from the mineral analysis revealed that calcium had the highest composition (2.64 ± 0.01 mg/kg) followed by&nbsp; manganese (1.74 ± 0.00 mg/kg) and zinc (1.02 ± 0.00 mg/kg). While the composition of iron, copper, nickel and lead were 0.83 ± 0.01&nbsp; mg/kg, 0.64 ± 0.01 mg/kg, 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/kg and 0.02 ± 0.00 mg/kg respectively. Results from the antioxidant analysis (DPPH Assay)&nbsp; revealed a significant difference in the radical scavenging activity of <em>Solenostemon monostachyus</em> and Ascorbic acid, with Solenostemon&nbsp; monostachyus having a significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 0.25ug/ml than Ascorbic acid with an&nbsp; IC<sub>50</sub> value of 0.03ug/ml. The total antioxidant capacity of<em> Solenostemon monostachyus</em> was 0.6 ± 0.01 (AAE/g) indicative of strong antioxidant activity. These minerals and antioxidant properties may account for the various health benefits of <em>Solenostemon&nbsp; monostachyus</em>. Based on the result obtained, it is therefore recommended that <em>S. monostachyus</em> should be cultivated for its various&nbsp; nutritional and antioxidant potentials rather than being treated as a weed.&nbsp; </p> P.C. Chijindu, A.O. Biadoyo, O. Atubi Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacognostic and physicochemical evaluation of the leaf and root of <i>Uvaria chamae</i> (P. Beauv.) annonaceae <p>The ethnomedicinal use of Uvaria chamae (P. Beauv) Annonaceae as an antimalarial has been scientifically justified. This study was carried out to determine the pharmacognostic and physicochemical characters of its leaf and root with a view to establishing&nbsp; pharmacopoeial parameters for their quality control. The fresh leaf and root of U. chamae, collected and authenticated in the IFE&nbsp; Herbarium, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria, were preserved in ethanol (50%) while some were oven-dried and powdered.&nbsp; Organoleptic evaluation of the fresh samples and microscopy of the powders were carried out according to standard methods.&nbsp; Transverse section and surface preparation of the fresh leaf as well as radial and tangential longitudinal sections of the root were carried&nbsp; out. Physicochemical properties such as moisture content, ash and extractive values were determined. The methanol extracts of the&nbsp; powders were subjected to HPLC-MS analysis. The transverse section of the leaf revealed a dorsiventral midrib and striated cuticle. On&nbsp; the abaxial surface, paracytic stomata were observed but the adaxial surface lacked stomata while the vascular bundle was of the&nbsp; collateral type. The root of U. chamae had prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and tyloses. The physicochemical results were as follow: the&nbsp; total ash (9.6 &amp; 9.7%), loss on drying (8.8 &amp; 8.1%), alcoholextractive value (3.5 &amp; 0.8%), water-extractive value (4.5 &amp; 1.3%) for the leaf and&nbsp; root, respectively. Flavonoids such as pinocembrin and chamanetin were identified in the root. The study revealed pharmacognostic and&nbsp; chemical profiles that may aid the identity, and therefore, quality control of U. chamae.&nbsp; </p> Awodayo O. Adepiti, Deborah O. Olufuwa, Ololade A. Oyedapo Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antisickling activity-guided fractionation of some plants used for the management of sickle cell disease in southwest Nigeria <p>The study evaluated the antisickling activities of some plants used in the Southwestern Nigeria ethno-medicine for the management of sickle cell disease (SCD), with a view to determining the most active plant extract and fraction. A semi-structured questionnaire was&nbsp; administered to two hundred and ten (210) respondents, which comprised traditional medical practitioners, herb sellers and community&nbsp; elders. Aqueous extracts of the plants with high fidelity levels alongside the positive controls (vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid)&nbsp; were tested in vitro against the sickled erythrocytes, using the inhibitory and reversal assay methods. The active extracts were solvent- partitioned into petroleum spirit, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions, and subsequently bioassayed. A total of 166 plants were&nbsp; mentioned as being used for the management of SCD within the zone, among which 27 plants were selected. Six of the selected plant&nbsp; extracts demonstrated remarkable antisickling activities. The aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL), Alchornia laxiflora leaf (ALL), K<em>igelia africana</em> fruit (KAF), <em>Olax subscorpioidea</em> leaf (OSL), <em>Pyrenacantha staudtii</em> leaf (PSL) and <em>Parquentina nigrescense</em> leaf (PNL) demonstrated 88.0, 86.2, 76.2, 75.8, 54.4 and 52.2% inhibitory activities respectively, while the reversal activities were 76.9, 65.3, 75.5, 66.6,&nbsp; 52.4 and 66.0% respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction of MOL and KAF (4 mg/mL) demonstrated 94.6 and 87.2% inhibitory activities, and&nbsp; 94.7 and 81.4% reversal activities respectively. The mode of activity of KAF was by membrane stabilisation with 81.1% activity. Silica gel&nbsp; column purification, followed by preparative thin-layer chromatography of the ethyl acetate KAF fraction afforded 5 bands, M<sub>1</sub> – M<sub>5</sub> . At 4&nbsp; mg/mL, band M<sub>2</sub> demonstrated the highest activity with 78.9% inhibitory and 70.8% reversal, and also showed strong free radical&nbsp; scavenging property. The findings validated the ethnomedicinal use of the six listed plants, especially M. oleifera leaves and <em>K. africana&nbsp;</em> fruits for the management of SCD and identified the ethyl acetate fractions of both plants to contain the putative compounds. </p> J.M. Agbedahunsi, C.A. Elusiyan, M.C. Cyril-Olutayo, F.B. Adewoyin, A.O. Oriola, O.A. Agbaje , T.A. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000