Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine <em>Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine</em> is published by the Nigerian Society of Pharmacognosy, a non profit organisation established in 1982 dedicated to the promotion of Pharmacognosy, Natural Products and Traditional Medicine. It has a current circulation of about 500 to scientists in Nigeria and abroad. The journal is produced once a year and had been in production since 1996. Articles published cover phytomedicine, natural product chemistry and biochemistry, pharmacognosy and traditional medicine, ethnoveterinary medicine and chemistry, clinical studies among others. en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. (J. M.Agbedahunsi Ph.D.) (S.A. Adesanya Ph.D.) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Shilajit: An organic powerhouse <p>This article deals with the use of shilajit as fertilizer for enhancing the growth of plants and thereby helping in the process of cultivation of new crops and thus in the agriculture science. Often times I get the question, “How do I prevent my plants from getting sick?” The answer is simple, and that is through plant immunity. In short, there are two primary factors that contribute to plant immunity: Adequate Mineral Nutrition and Absorption of nutrients. Both factors are met by the use of shilajit as fertilizer. Due to the chemistry of this mineral origin fertilizer, all growth factors&nbsp; are provided to plants and correct absorption of nutrients take place when shilajit is used as fertilizer. In this article, we will discuss the traditional concepts, origin, types, Phytochemistry, odour, ayurvedic characters and biological effects of shilajit as fertilizer which makes it the powerhouse of plant immunity and use as organic natural fertilizer for agriculture and cultivation.</p> S. Thakkar, K. Laddha Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bioassay guided phytochemistry of aerial part of <i>Laportea Aestuans</i> (l.) chew (urticaceae) <p>There are evidences that free radicals mediated damages play important role in the aetiology of several diseases necessitating search for&nbsp; antioxidants especially from natural origin. Free radical scavenging activities of <em>Laportea aestuans</em> (Urticaceae) is well documented, therefore this study aims at evaluating the safety of <em>L. aestuans</em> and isolating free radical scavenging compound(s) from the plant extract. The aerial (leaves, stem and inflorescence) parts of <em>L. aestuans</em> were collected together and extracted with 80% methanol. The toxicity of the plant extract was evaluated using brine shrimp lethality assay and acute toxicity study while Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) bioautography with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH•) radical as detection reagent was used to guide the isolation of compounds from the plant extract. The LC<sub>50</sub> of <em>L. aestuans</em> extract was 4276.87 µg/mL, suggesting that the extract is nontoxic. This was further confirmed by the healthiness of study rats following administration of the extract at 5000 mg/kg b.wt in the acute toxicity study. TLC bioautography showed that hexane fraction had the most pronounced radical scavenging activities. Three compounds identified as hexadecanoic acid butyl ester, heptadecanoic and octadecane were characterized using IR, <sup>1</sup>H, <sup>13</sup>C NMR, ESI – MS and GC – MS analysis. </p> S.A. Oguntimehin , A.O. Oriola , E.M. Obuotor , A.J. Aladesanmi Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 <i>In vivo</i> antimalarial activity of methanol extracts and fractions of <i>Brachystegia eurycoma</i> and <i>Mondia whitei</i>on chloroquine-resistant <i>Plasmodium berghei</i> <p>Malaria remains a major public health problem in the tropics. According to WHO estimates, sub-Saharan Africa continues to carry a&nbsp;&nbsp; disproportionately high share of global malaria burden. Oxidative stress plays significant role in malaria pathogenesis. Recently, there is increasing&nbsp; effort to develop more potent antimalarials from plant source. Brachystegia eurycoma and Mondia whitei are used locally for malaria treatment. Medicinal plants used in therapy quite often possess antioxidant activities as a result of its inherent phytoconstituents. The phytochemical composition of Brachystegia eurycoma and Mondia whitei were qualitatively examined. The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of two medicinal plants were determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay. The Brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) and Lorke‘s acute toxicity study were used to estimate their toxicities; while Peter‘s 4-day chemosuppresive test was employed to evaluate their antimalarial activities. The flavonoid and saponins content were particularly high in both plants. Using ascorbic acid as reference (IC<sub>50</sub> 9.26 μg/mL), the antioxidant IC<sub>50</sub> values of <em>B. eurycoma</em> and <em>M. whitei</em> were 11.14 μg/ mL and 19.81μg/mL respectively; the BSLA LC<sub>50</sub> were 1.8 mg/mL and 1.2 mg/mL; acute toxicity LD<sub>50</sub> were 5000 mg/kg and 4500 mg/kg. Brachystegia eurycoma showed stronger daily average antimalarial activity (62.0 %) than Mondia whitei (39.3%), the standard drug, chloroquine, was 85.4%. The chloroform fraction of Brachystegia eurycoma was the most active with (65%) daily average suppression. This suggests that the extracts of leaves of the plants have good antioxidant activities, are non-toxic and supports their antimalarial use in ethnomedicine. </p> A. A. Owolabi , D.A. Fadare , O.O. Ogbole , E.O. Ajaiyeoba Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Traditional soups in Nigeria: A review of six botanicals <p>Ethnobotanical investigations by workers have revealed the use of juvenile leaves of <em>Cissus populnea L. (ogbolo), Sesamum indicum L. (eeku),</em><br><em>Gongronema latifolium Benth. (Madunmaro), Mangifera indica L. (Mongoro), Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Odunkun) </em>and<em> Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Araba)</em> for preparing soups in Nigeria. In spite of this, the consumption of these traditional soups seems to be abandoned and only consumed during scarcity of commonly used vegetables such as <em>Corchorus olitorius L. (Ewedu).</em> Certain traditional soups are associated with particular Nigerian ethnic groups. As examples, Gongronema latifolium to Igbo people of southeast Nigeria, while Sesamum indicum to the Yorubas and Hausas, southwest and northern Nigeria respectively. For ethnomedicinal purposes Cissus populnea and Sesamum indicum soups enhance sexual performance in men as well as production and cleansing of sperm. Mangifera indica soup is used as anti-anaemic; Gongronema latifolium soup forms part of a recipe for the management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Ceiba pentandra soup is used for treating diarrhoea disorder. Despite the therapeutic and nutritional benefits of the soups, their consumption is gradually waning due to erosion of traditional&nbsp; knowledge and deforestation of medicinal plants occasioned by increasing urbanization. This review documents the therapeutic uses and pharmacological effects of six medicinal plants used as traditional soups, with the view that an awareness of their health benefits could lead to a resurgence of their consumption in diet. </p> I.T. Gbadamosi , A.O. Kalejaye Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Toxicological evaluation of the stem bark of <i>Burkea africana hook.</i> (Caesalpiniaceae) in wistar rats <p><em>Burkea africana Hook.</em> (Caesalpiniaceae) is used traditionally to treat ulcers, headaches, skin disease and tumors. The study investigated the acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity profiles of the ethanolic extract of Burkea africana stem bark. Rats of either sexes were used in this study (n=10). For&nbsp; acute toxicity, a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg was administered while for the sub-acute and chronic toxicity study, three doses (40, 200 and 1000&nbsp; mg/kg) of the extract were administered orally for 28 and 90 days respectively. At the end of each study, the biochemical, hematological and&nbsp; histological parameters were evaluated. No mortality or behavioral changes were observed in the acute toxicity study. Extract caused significant&nbsp; changes in the hematological parameters after the sub-acute toxicity study. In the chronic toxicity study, the extract caused significant increase in&nbsp; the white blood cell count of the 200 mg/kg group. There was significant increase in the platelet count of treated groups compared to control in the sub-acute and chronic toxicity studies, with an observed total mortality of all the animals in the 1000 mg/kg group on the 44th day. No adverse pathology was observed in the organs examined. The extract elicited a hematological response and short term consumption of the extract at low doses might be relatively safe. However, long term consumption at high doses should be discouraged. </p> O.K. Eboji, A.A. Sowemimo , O.O. Ogunkunle , M.O. Sofidiya , K.B. Badmos , F.B. Abdulkareem Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Acute and sub-acute toxicity of antisickling polyherbal extract in Wistar albino rats <p>Piper guineense, Gongronema latifolium and Cymbopogon citratus (PGC) serve as an effective polyherbal antisickling extract used in the&nbsp; management of sickle cell disorder. This present study assessed the toxicity effect of the ethanol leaf extract of PGC in rats. The acute oral toxicity&nbsp; test of the polyherbal was evaluated in albino rats using a single-dose based on behavioral changes and mortality. Sub-acute toxicological&nbsp; evaluation of PGC was examined using biochemical, hematological and histopathological methods. Biochemical analysis was carried out using liver markers enzymes, kidney markers enzymes, and lipid profiles. The hematological measurement includes white blood cell counts (WBC),&nbsp; Lymphocytes (LYM), monocytes (MON), granulocytes (GRAN), Red blood cell count (RBC). The organs (liver, kidney, and heart) were collected and prepared using standard protocols with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological evaluation. The acute toxicity study of ethanol leaf extract of PGC up to the limit dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animals used did not produce any signs and symptoms of toxic effects or mortality after 48 hrs. of oral administration. There were no significant differences (p &lt; 0.001) in the observed values between the control and the treated groups for all the biochemical and hematological parameters analyzed. Histopathological evaluation of the organs demonstrated mild degeneration in the kidney and liver while the heart revealed no pathological changes in the treated group of rats. The result of acute toxicity indicates that the&nbsp; combined antisickling polyherbal PGC extract appeared to be safe and non- toxic. Our findings for the 28 days daily oral administration of PGC extract was dose dependent and well tolerated by the animals. Although, slight changes were observed in some biochemical parameters and histology of the kidney and liver at high doses when compared with control rats. Therefore, the consumption of the antisickling polyherbal PGC extract orally should be used encouraged at lower doses and high doses should be avoided for the management of sickle cell disorder until subjected to further cytotoxicity evaluation. </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Polyherbal combination, acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, biochemical parameter, hematological parameter, histopathological parameters.</p> O.O. Amujoyegbe , M. Idu, J.M. Agbedahunsi, E.M. Obuotor , I.J. Olawuni , O. Oyasowo , G.E. Ogundepo Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 <i>In vitro</i> evaluation of antisickling activity of herbal combination of three medicinal plants <p>Sickle cell disorder is a genetic ailment with enormous social and economic burden for patients and caregivers. The most promising management apart from being expensive particularly for poor African people, faces some major incompatibility problems. The patients consequently rely on herbal therapy which could be prepared in single or combination forms to manage the painful episodes and its complications. This present study aimed to formulate polyherbal combination and evaluate three purposively selected plants previously reported for their antisickling activities. The polyherbal products were formulated using both aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts into different combinational ratio with the best in 1:1:1 and evaluated for its antisickling activity. The antisickling activity involved both the inhibitory and reversal effects at varying concentrations from 1.0 mg/ml to 6.0 mg/ml using ciklavit as the positive control. The best inhibitory activity was found in ethanol extract of<em> Piper guineense, Gongronema latifolium</em> and <em>Cymbopogon citratus</em> (PGC) with 70.09 ± 0.67% when compared with the positive control (59.25 ± 0.05%) at 4.0 mg/mg while the reversal ability was 67.87 ± 1.23%. The aqueous extracts of the combinations had activity above 50% with the exception of PGC (2:3:1) which is a little less than 50% (46.67 ± 0.98%) while the highest was 60.02 ± 0.87%. The polyherbal ethanol extract had better effects than the aqueous extract and the standard drug used in this study. </p> O.O. Amujoyegbe, M. Idu , J.M. Agbedahunsi, G.N. Bazuaye Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chemoscopic, macromorphological and micromorphological evaluation of the leaves of <i>Crescentia cujet</i>Linn <p>The leaves of <em>Crescentia cujete Linn</em> belonging to Bignoniaceae family have been reported to exhibit some important medicinal properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory activities. This study therefore evaluated the chemoscopic, macro-morphological and<br>micromorphological attributes of powdered, fresh and anatomical sections of <em>Crescentia cujete Linn</em> leaves using standard methods. The result of<br>chemoscopic study confirmed presence of calcium oxalate crystals, fat deposits and traces of lignin in numbers on epidermal surfaces. Macro-morphological study revealed that <em>C. cujete</em> leaves are deep green in colour with faint odour, sour taste and smooth-feel with non-granular&nbsp; surfaces. Micromorphological examinations indicated that epidermal cells are irregular, rectangular to polygonal in shape on the abaxial surface but epidermal cells on the adaxial surface were straight, slightly undulating with thick anticlinal cell walls. <em>Paracytic stomata</em> arrangement was found only on the abaxial surfaces. Quantitative leaf microscopy confirmed that epidermal cells had average sizes of 37.52 ± 4.62 – 39.23 ± 4.73 μm in&nbsp; length while cell width was 25.51± 0.86 – 27.76 ± 4.21μm. The stomata length was 15.66 ± 2.04 and 6.29 ±0.93 in width. Organoleptic and other&nbsp; parameters evaluated on <em>C. cujete</em> shows that it has optimum potential for herbal drug development and a baseline for species identification.</p> M.B. Olaniyi , I.O. Lawal , M.I. Adeniyi Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of <i>Waltheria Indica</i> Linn whole plant <p><em>Waltheria indica</em> is a promising medicinal plant belonging to family Malvaceae, which many biological activities of the solvent extracts of its various parts have been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate and analyze the minerals, crude fibre and fat contents, the phytochemical constituents as well as the antioxidants activity of the powder sample of W. indica whole plant. Fresh sample of whole W. indica plant was collected and airdried at room temperature. The mineral constituents were determined by spectrophotometry. The crude fibre, fat contents and the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical compositions were determined using standard analytical procedure. The antioxidants activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assays. The mineral analysis results revealed the presence of micro and macro nutrients such as potassium, calcium, magnesium and manganese among others which are within the acceptable health range. The values (23.8%; 0.15%) obtained for both crude fibre and fat contents were reasonable. The qualitative phytochemical screening established the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and phenol. Steroids are in abundance while Cardiac glycosides are absent. The quantity of alkaloids (1.9%), <em>saponins (1.4%), flavonoids (3.1%) </em>and<em> tannins</em> (17422μg/GAE) are in appreciable amount which may be responsible for its various activities. <em>W. indica</em> showed good inhibitory scavenging activity and better reducing ability&nbsp; compared to ascorbic acid. The results obtained from this study provide further scientific evidence to support the ethno-medicinal information on the uses of <em>W. indica</em> in the treatment of various health issues. </p> B. Rafiu, I.O. Lawal , M.B. Olaniyi Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anticancer and antioxidant studies of the methanol extract and fractions of <i>Conyza sumatrensis</i> (retz.) E. H. Walker (asteraceae <p>The in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant studies of the leaf extract and fractions of Conyza sumatrensis was investigated by applying the Sulforhodamine-B and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays (DPPH-RSA) respectively. While the antiproliferative activity was carried out at 1-250 and 1-100 μg/ mL for the extract and fractions against breast (MCF-7) and lung (NCI-H460) cancer cell lines, the antioxidant study was conducted using DPPH at 31.25 -500 μg/ mL with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents calculated as well with reference to quercetin and gallic acid respectively. The extract and fractions were observed to elicit cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects against breast (MCF-7) and lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H460) respectively. At 250 μg/mL, the extract of <em>C. sumatrensis</em> gave cytotoxicity of –1.76 ± 0.20 % against MCF-7 cell lines and inhibited growth of NCI-H460 at +94.40 ± 1.0 % respectively. While the chloroform fraction at 100 μg/mL gave -5.38 ± 0.33 % and 91 ± 1.61 % against MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cell lines, the aqueous fraction was observed to be inactive. For the DPPH-RSA activity, the chloroform fraction demonstrated an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 125.5 μg/ mL compare to quercetin at 62.5 μg/ mL. The bioactivities were more pronounced in the chloroform fraction. This work has shown that <em>C.&nbsp; sumatrensis</em> has antiproliferative and antioxidant activities which could be tied to the secondary metabolites present in the plant. </p> E.O. Ikpefan , B.A. Ayinde , B.A. Mudassar, Ahsana Dar Farooq Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hepatoprotective effect of methanol seed extract of citrus tangerina on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats <p>This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of methanol seed extract of Citrus tangerina on liver damage induced by paracetamol in laboratory rats. Wistar rats were used in this study and categorized into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 received 10 ml/kg normal saline orally, groups 3 and 4 were administered 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively of Citrus tangerina seed extract orally, while silymarin 100 mg/kg served as standard drug treatment for group 5. Following six (6) days of pretreatment with the extract, hepatotoxicity was induced with paracetamol 3 g/kg (orally) in all the groups except the positive control group. At the end of the experiment (24 hours after induction), blood samples were collected under diethyl ether anaesthesia for biochemical markers of liver enzymes and antioxidative stress and the liver was harvested for histopathological studies. Both doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of Citrus tangerina seed extract significantly (p &lt; 0.05) reduced the liver enzymes level, but significantly (p &lt; 0.05) increased antioxidant enzymes when compared with the negative control group. Liver histology showed that the Citrus tangerina seed extract prevented hepatic injury induced by paracetamol. The methanol seed extract of Citrus tangerina possesses antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects. </p> E.G. Moke , K.K. Anachuna, K.E. Edje , M.O. Ojezele Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical constituents of the stem bark of <i>Acacia Auriculiformis</i>A.Cunn ex. Benth. (fabaceae) <p>The genus Acacia has been known to be a rich source of many secondary metabolites. This study was carried to isolate chemical constituents present in the stem bark of <em>Acacia auriculiformis</em>. The dichloromethane extract of the stem bark of Acacia auriculiformis was obtained by maceration. The extract obtained was subjected to silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC. The isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. This led to the isolation of ferulic acid ester (I), along with a steroid (II) and a triterpenoid (III). The structure of compound I was established using spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, NMR and mass spectrometry) and identified to be dodecyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-trans-cinnamate (I), compounds II and III were found to be á-spinasterol and lupenol respectively, based on the comparison of their spectral data NMR and MS with literature report. Compound I is being reported for the first time in the genus Acacia.</p> A.A. Ahmadu, B.A. Lawal , B. Olanipekun , A. Udobre, N. Tsafantakis , N. Fokialakis Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of <i>Aloe barbadensis</i> on the cortical cells of adult Wistar rats following monosodium glutamate-induced neurotoxicity <p>The study assessed the oxidative state and cellular changes of the cerebral cortex following monosodium glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats, with a view to evaluate the effects of varying doses of aqueous extract of <em>Aloe barbadensis</em> (AB) over a four-week period. Eighty Wistar rats (8&nbsp; weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 20 rats; Group 1 (Control group) received 3 mL/kg of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 3 g/kg/day of MSG dissolved in distilled water. In addition, Groups 3 and 4 received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of AB extract respectively. Oral administration of the above lasted for 28 days in all groups. Five rats per group were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks. The brain was harvested; one cerebral hemisphere was homogenised for oxidative state assessment. The other hemisphere was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and stained with H&amp;E and Cresyl violet. Data were analyzed using student t-test and p-value &lt; 0.05 was considered significant. Malodialdehyde concentration and densities of degenerating neuron and oligodendrocyte were significantly higher in group 2 compared with group 1 over the 4-week period. No significant difference was noted between groups 1, 3 and 4 for same parameters. Nissl bodies depletion was noted in group 2 across the 4 weeks, lesser degree of depletion was noted in groups 3 and 4. This study concludes that oral administration of MSG resulted in increased lipid peroxidation and depletion of Nissl bodies resulting in degeneration of cortical cells. Aloe barbadensis at 100 mg/kg was sufficient to protect the brain. </p> S.O. Bamigboye , O.A. Ayannuga , A.Z. Abijo Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical analyses, anxiolytic and anti-amnesic effect of methanol stem bark extract of <i>Vitex doniana</i> (sweet) in mice <p>This study investigated the oral acute toxicity (LD50), anxiolytic and anti-amnesic effects of the methanol stem bark extract of<em> Vitex doniana</em> (MSVD) in mice. The anxiolytic and anti-amnesic effects were assessed using standard protocols. The phytoconstituents in MSVD was quantified. The MSVD was further analysed using Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and Fourier Transform Infra red (FTIR) fingerprints. The LD50 was &gt; 5000 mg/kg suggesting its safety. The MSVD (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in the percentage open arm entry and duration on elevated plus maze as well as reduced the anxiety index as indexed from the open arm avoidance index indicating an anti-anxiety effect. Subsequently, MSVD significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased the percentage alternation reduced by scopolamine consistent with anti-amnesic effect. The phytoconstituents estimation of MSVD showed abundance of flavonoids. The UV-VIS spectra corresponded to the presence of flavonoid, phenolic acid derivatives and terpenoids while the FTIR revealed the presence of amine, hydroxyl, alkane, carboxylic, amide, ether, aromatic and carbonyl functional groups among others in MSVD. This study therefore, concluded that flavonoids, either in synergy or additive with other phytocompounds in MSVB may be responsible for the observed anxiolytic and anti-amnesic effects elicited by MSVD in this study.</p> L.A. Akinpelu, M.A. Adebayo, A. Fajana, M.A. Adeniyi-Ake, S.E. Ubogu, N.S. Aminu Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 <i>In vivo</i> and <i>in silico</i> toxicity profiling of aerial part of <i>Andrographis paniculata</i> revealed potential to precipitate organs toxicity <p>The many medicinal properties of <em>Andrographis paniculata</em> have made it an important resource in drug discovery. The commonly used powdered aerial part of <em>A. paniculata</em> is however a subject of abuse occasioned by indiscriminate use, raising safety concerns. In this study, we evaluated the safety profile of the suspension of the powdered aerial part of <em>A. paniculata</em> in male and female rats using single and repeated dose toxicity profiling, and the in silico toxicity profiling of its known phytochemicals, with a view to establishing organs safety. Our results showed significant sex dependent alterations in key haematological and biochemical indices. Significant alteration in liver and kidney histo-architectures were consistent with the observed significant increase in AST/ALT ratio and with the in silico toxicity screening of A. paniculata phytochemicals, including andrographolide, which showed potential for hepatotoxicity, binding of proteins and DNA, and inhibition of hERG II. We conclude that, while taking advantage of the many medicinal benefits of this plant, the unguarded and indiscriminate uses may precipitate organ toxicity, induce cellular alteration and potentiate possible cardiovascular risk. </p> A.O. Agbaje , M.O. Daniyan , I.J. Olawuni Copyright (c) Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000