Management of hypertension using dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) among adults in Ekiti State, Nigeria
AbstractBackground: Dietary interventions are important behavioural strategies for hypertension risk reduction. While dietary management of hypertension with DASH significantly lowers blood pressure, investigation of the management of hypertension with local diets in Nigeria is limited.
Objective: This study was designed to study the efficacy of DASH diet on the management of hypertension among adults in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Methods: In a quasi-experimental study and by simple random sampling technique, 210 consenting adults (known hypertensive) were recruited. Pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics. The participants were allocated to two groups: 105 in DASH diet group and 105 on normal diet (control group). Blood Pressure was measured and Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall were determined before, 4 weeks , 8 weeks and at 24 weeks after starting “DASH” diet. Nutrient intake was analysed using Total Diet Assessment. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and student t-test at p=0.05.
Results: Mean age of respondents was 51.71±12.25 years. Mean Systolic and Diastolic BP were 160.37±16.02 and 94.18±11.35 respectively. Dietary intervention in the DASH group significantly reduced the intake of fat and sodium while it increased dietary fiber, calcium, potassium and magnesium significantly. At 24 weeks, the SBP and DBP reduced significantly by 28.0/14.0mmHg for DASH group and 7.5/7.4mmHg (control). A total of 75.2% had their BP reduced to <140/90 in the DASH group, compared with 12.4% in control group.
Conclusion: The DASH diet had lowering effect on blood pressure. This finding may be useful for dietary management of hypertension.
Key words: Hypertension, Blood pressure, DASH diet, Nutrient intake.
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