Undernutrition in Nigerian under-ve children and associated household factors
Background: Undernutrition in under-five children (U-5) in Nigeria is high. Children's household characteristics influence their nutritional status.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of undernutrition in U-5 and their household characteristics.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 531 U-5 randomly sampled through a multi-stage sampling technique in Oyo State. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on household characteristics. Height and weight of the children were measured to calculate stunting (height-for-age z-score < -2SD), wasting (weight-for-height z-score < -2SD) and underweight (weight-for-age z-score < -2SD). Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to established relationship between household factors and stunting, wasting and underweight at 5% level of significance.
Results: The median age of the children was 9.0 months. Stunting, wasting and underweight were found in 21.7%, 11.3% and 7.8% U-5 respectively. Overall, 94.5% households were headed by male, 82.9% had ≤ 6members and 61.8% were monogamous. Fathers were always present in 92.6% households and 96.2% households had 1-2 U-5. Stunting was significantly higher when there were > 6members, >2 U-5 and absence of child's father in the household. Prevalence of wasting and underweight was higher in extended family and female headed households respectively.
Conclusion: Stunting, wasting and underweight in U-5 still exist in the study location. Large household size, absence of child's father in the household, large number of U-5, female headship and extended family arrangement were associated with undernutrition in U-5. Household factors should be put into consideration when planning nutrition-related intervention programme.
Keywords: Stunting, Wasting, Underweight, Under-five children, Household
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