Physico-chemical, Energy, Minerals, Vitamins, and Sensory Properties of Wheatbased Biscuit Supplemented with African yam-bean, Cowpea, Pigeon pea, Wateryam, Cocoyam and Plantain flour
AbstractObjective: The paper examined the physico-chemical properties, energy, minerals and vitamins and sensory attributes of wheat-based biscuits supplemented with fermented flours. Materials and methods: The food materials were processed into flour and put in a polyethylene bag. The flour batches were subjected to natural fermentation in de-ionized water in the ratio of 1:3 (w/v) at 28 ± 20C for 24 hours. The fermented samples were dried at 55 ± 20C in a drought air oven, hammer milled into fine flour (70mm mesh screen) and stored in a refrigerator until used for the chemical analysis and production of biscuits. The blends were formulated thus: 70% wheat flour and legume, tuber; root and plantain contributed 25, 5, 3 and 2%, respectively. The control sample was 100% wheat flour. The biscuits were analyzed for physical, chemical, vitamin, energy, and sensory attributes using standard techniques Results: The test biscuits contained 14.26 - 16.20% protein, 70.06 -72.26% carbohydrate, 4.76 -6.40% ash, 1.88 - 2.18% fat, 6.10 – 7.02% fibre and 357.56 – 373.28 kilocalories. The mineral contents were moderate except for calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium that ranged from (74.20 – 77.10mg, 75.13 - 110.50mg, 170.20 -175.00mg and 720.00 -731.10mg, respectively). The vitamin contents were moderate. The physical properties of biscuit samples were comparable to that of the control except that fermentation decreased the weight and the width of the samples. Sensory evaluation results showed that the biscuits containing plantain were not significantly different (P≥ 0.05) from the 100% wheat flour biscuits. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that wheat-based biscuits supplemented with other food crops can produce biscuits that are organoleptically acceptable with a higher nutrient density than their 100% wheat biscuit counterparts. Keywords: Physical and sensory qualities, energy and nutrient composition, fermented composite flours, biscuits
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