Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences 2023-04-18T05:17:07+00:00 Prof. Marshall A. Azeke Open Journal Systems <p>The Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences (ISSN 0189-0913), official Journal of the Nutrition Society of Nigeria, is a peer-reviewed publication and is published biannually, two volumes per year.</p> <p>The primary focus of the journal is the publication of basic and applied studies in nutritional sciences and related fields. The following types of manuscripts are considered: original research articles, review articles, issues and opinions, special communications, letters to the Editor, book reviews, and proceedings of symposia. The journal is intended for a wide audience, including, nutritionists, dieticians, biochemists, health professionals, home economists, policy makers, students of nutrition and related fields, health educators, and all those in the health sciences. Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Large scale food fortification in Nigeria: Opportunities and challenges: A position of the Nutrition Society of Nigeria 2022-11-11T17:05:37+00:00 Bartholomew I. C. Brai Wasiu Akinloye Afolabi Oluwaseun Ariyo James Oloyede Folake Anjorin Adedotun Owolabi <p>Food fortification is widely identified as a cost-effective strategy for ddressing micronutrient malnutrition&nbsp; at scale. In Nigeria, food fortification with a focus on vitamin A, iron, zinc, iodine, and other micronutrient remains a major thrust of the effort to eliminate micronutrient malnutrition. Though the step is laudable, the persisting high burden of micronutrient malnutrition suggests the need to re-think the design and implementation of the fortification programmes. This re-thinking and revision of strategy are premised on various conditions including irregular food consumption data and changing dietary patterns, poor awareness of the benefits of fortified foods, poor compliance to fortification standards, and lack of functional information system on food fortification, among others.</p> <p>Based on the current understanding of the nutrition and food fortification landscape in Nigeria, the Nutrition Society of Nigeria affirms that large-scale food fortification remains a cost-effective strategy to promote a healthy diet and adequate micronutrient intakes and commends the efforts of the various stakeholders especially the development partners and the government's promotion of enabling environment. However, re-thinking the implementation strategy and overhauling the fortification programme to ensure quality, transparency, and possibly digital transformation that can meet real-time data needs to guide decision-making is essential. Thus, it is necessary to ascertain the commonly consumed foods, the usually consumed portion sizes, and the current coverage of the various national micronutrient deficiencies interventions; strengthen social marketing programmes on proper handling and use of fortified foods; improve enforcement of compliance to fortifications standards; strengthen National Nutrition Information Management System to include food fortification information; explore strategies to increase the affordability of the premixes, and develop and implement a Monitoring and Evaluation framework of food fortification programmes.</p> 2022-11-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among public secondary school teachers in Udenu Local Government Area, Enugu State 2022-11-11T17:44:21+00:00 Ifeoma. C Afiaenyi Kosiso. Q. Asadu Adaobi. M. Okafor <p><strong>Background:</strong> There is a sudden increase in cardiovascular risk in developing countries which has been attributed to economic transition, urbanization, industrialization and globalization that brought about changes in people's lifestyle.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. The population for this study was five hundred and sixty-five teachers while the sample for this study consisted of four hundred and seventy-seven teachers. Questionnaire was used to ascertain information on the sociodemographic characteristics, dietary habit, physical activity level and lifestyle characteristics of the respondents. Body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid profile of the respondents were obtained using standard proceduresData was analyzed using Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) version 21.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the study showed the occurrence of some cardiovascular disease risk factors among teachers. They included obesity (28.60%), hypertension (20.30%), diabetes (10.00%), dyslipidemia (23.33%) and metabolic syndrome (10.00%). A good number of the respondents fall between the age range of 30-39years (46.70%) and earned between ₦18,000 to ₦30,000 per month (54.30%). Majority (83.00%) of the respondents were females. Female teachers were significantly more obese than the males. Marital status showed a significant relationship with stress. BMI was significantly associated with age. Diastolic blood pressure showed significant relationship with age.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among public secondary school teachers in Udenu L.G.A. in Enugu state, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong> Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors was high among the study participants. Nutrition education is important among this group to help in preventing these risk factors and their associated morbidities and consequent mortalities.&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Phytochemical composition of ice cream from tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) milk and coconut (Cocos nucifera ) milk 2022-11-12T13:49:40+00:00 Ijeoma-Oji Onu Ekumankama <p><strong>Background:</strong> Coconut and tiger nut are widely used for human consumption. Coconut milk and tiger nut milk can be extracted for ice cream production. <br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study determined the phytochemical composition of tiger nut milk (Cyperus esculentus) and coconut milk (Cocos nucifera) ice cream.<br><strong>Method:</strong> The research design was an experimental design. The tiger nuts and the endosperm of the coconuts were ground separately. The milk extracted were used in preparing ice cream using standard recipe. Cow milk ice cream served as the control. All the samples of ice cream were quantitatively screened for phytochemical determination using standard methods. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for all the samples. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the means. Significant differences were accepted at P&lt;0.05 level of significance using Duncan's Multiple Range Test.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The phytochemical analyses carried out on the ice creams from coconut milk, tiger nut milk and blend of coconut milk and tiger nut milk (50:50) showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids in low concentration. Research results revealed significant differences in tannins content among tiger nut ice cream (0.06 ± 0.00), coconut ice cream (0.01 ± 0.00) as well as their blend (0.03 ± 0.00) at P&lt;0.05 level of significance. Tiger nut milk ice cream, coconut milk ice cream and their blends contain flavonoids and alkaloids. However, saponins were present in the plant milk ice creams with the exception of coconut milk ice-creams (0.00 ± 0.00).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Coconut milk, tiger nut milk and the blends of coconut milk and tiger nut milk have been recommended for ice cream production due to their phytochemical constituents.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Inhibitory effects of Nigerian sweet and bitter honey on pancreatic alpha amylase activity 2022-11-12T14:04:16+00:00 Adeoye Bayo Olufunso Iyanda Abolape Ayobola Oyerinde Ayodeji Michael Oyeleke Ibukunoluwa Oyebimpe Fadeyi Blessing Olayinka <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nigeria has the highest prevalence of diabetes in Sub - Saharan Africa. The relative contraindications associated with conventional oral hypoglycemic drugs demand the search for nutraceuticals as ideal alternatives.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> In this study, we aimed at elucidating possible antiglycemic properties of Nigerian sweet and bitter honey from Apis Mellifera Andasonii through the pathway of alpha amylase inhibition.<br><strong>Method</strong>: The pH of the honey samples was determined using a digital pH meter (pHs-2F, Harris, England). Standard assay methods using 3, 5 - dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) was used to analyse alpha amylase activity invitro. The honey concentration which inhibited 50% alpha amylase activity (IC ) was 50 determined using the dose response curve. Data were analysed using student t-test on graph pad prism 6.1.<br><strong>Result:</strong> The sweet and bitter honey samples exhibited low pH values of 3.30 and 3.38 respectively. The dose dependent inhibition of alpha amylase activity was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in sweet honey (94.73% at 1 mg/mL) than in bitter honey (92.06% at 1 mg/mL) with IC values of 0.157 ± 50 0.023 mg/mL and 0.255 ± 0.049 mg/mL respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Both sweet and bitter honey varieties used for this study are potential new sources of alpha amylase inhibitor. They can be appraised as novel indigenous functional foods for regulating postprandial hyperglycemia.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Effect of fermentation period on the nutrient and anti- nutrient properties of Okpehe Seed (Prosopis Africana) 2022-11-12T14:20:14+00:00 Chinaza Precious Uche Chinonye Maryrose Umenne Chinonye Maryrose Umenne <p><strong>Background</strong>:The intake of adequate nutrients had been known as a major determinant factor in fighting chronic diseases. Fermentation increases the level of some nutrient, digestibility and bioavailability and also decreases level of antinutrient, increase nutrient density and nutritional value.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study evaluated the effect of different fermentation period on the chemical properties of Okpehe seed.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The Okpehe sample was obtained from Ogige main market in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The seeds were prepared and allowed to ferment at different periods of 5days, 7days, 9days, 11days, and 14days. The plant samples were analyzed for proximate, vitamin, mineral and anti-nutrient at the different fermentation periods using standard procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result showed that fermentation significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased the moisture, ash and protein content of Okpehe with values ranging from 52.69 - 54.36 mg/100g, 2.37-2.45 mg/100g and 21.31-22.43 mg/100g respectively. On the minerals, Calcium was significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased with increased fermentation period with values ranging from 73.92-78.62 mg/100g with same trend for Magnesium, Potassium, Phosphorus, Iron, Sodium and Zinc. For anti-nutrient and vitamins, the fermentation of Okpehe significantly reduced the anti-nutrient and vitamin content of the samples.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The Okpehe seed could be used as alternative source of protein in the diet/protein supplement. The study recommends among others that fermented Okpehe should be employed in the food industry as they can be used in making food supplements that are rich in proteins and minerals.<br><br></p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Nutritional status and adequacy of selected micronutrients of civil servants in Ogun state, Nigeria 2022-11-12T15:53:38+00:00 Oyefunmilayo S. Amoda Gbenga S. Oladosu Bolanle R Olajide Oluseye O. Onabanjo Ebenezer P John <p><strong>Background</strong>: Inadequate micronutrient intake can have a negative impact on physical and mental health causing several health consequences. People who are overweight or obese also fails to meet the majority of micronutrient recommendations</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study assessed the nutritional status and adequacy of selected micronutrients of civil servants in Ogun State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study design was cross-sectional in design. The sample consisted of 250 civil servants. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to determine the socio-demographic characteristics, family medical history and nutrition knowledge of the respondents. Nutrient intakes were estimated from 24-hour dietary recall and analyzed using Nutri-Survey software. Anthropometric measurements were carried out to determine nutritional status. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS version 20. Statistical significance was established at p≤0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 39.2% and 11.6% respectively. One-third (32.8%) of the population were at risk of cardiovascular diseases. Nutrient adequacy of micronutrients assessed were low except phosphorus (89.6%), zinc (86.8%), iron (68.8%) and sodium (50.0%) which were in excess. Macronutrients were above the recommended dietary allowances. A significance association (p&lt;0.05) was observed between some micronutrient adequacy ratio (folic acid, Vitamin A and Vitamin E) and nutritional status assessed by Body Mass Index of the respondents.<br><br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Micronutrient intake was inadequate and prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher than reported in previous studies. There is a need for nutrition education that emphasizes on the consumption of micronutrient dense foods.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Consumption pattern and standardization of some food recipes from Lima Bean in Kaduna State, Northwestern Nigeria 2022-11-12T16:06:02+00:00 Charity Baliyat Dankat Olumuyiwa Adeyemi Owolabi Ijeoma Okolo <p><strong>Background</strong>: Adequate nutrients are vital for healthy growth and development, in this regard, assessing the nutrient content of foods is very essential. However, many Nigerian dishes are difficult to assess because, they have not been standardized.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study was carried out to assess the consumption frequency of lima bean foods and to standardize the commonly consumed lima bean foods in Kaduna State.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A validated semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the consumption of lima bean foods. The study involved 400 households selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. The means for each ingredient of commonly consumed foods were calculated from twenty randomly selected recipes and then used for the preparation of the standardized foods. These foods were then subjected to sensory analysis using standard procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Data revealed that only 54.3% of the population consumed lima bean foods, four out of ten (23.1%) of the respondents consumed lima beans at least once to twice a week with 17.5% consuming only once or occasionally per year. The most consumed lima bean foods in Kaduna state are lima bean porridge (64.9%), followed by lima bean-benniseed (14.8%) and lima bean-hungry rice (11.5%). All the foods scored more than 3, the benchmark for acceptability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The three commonly consumed lima bean foods were considered acceptable. There is need for an increase extension work in the utilization of lima bean foods to help in alleviating the effects of malnutrition.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Assessment of Body Mass Index of tuberculosis patients on anti-tuberculosis drugs in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria 2022-11-12T16:35:30+00:00 Igbagboyemi Adesola Deniran Olanike Olubunmi Balogun Jayeola Feyisayo <p>This study assessed Body Mass Index (BMI) of tuberculosis patients on anti-tuberculosis drugs in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 tuberculosis patients from Tuberculosis <br>Clinic, Molete, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The demographic information was analyzed using descriptive statistics while BMI was (BMI) was used to determine the anthropometry values of the respondents. Inferential statistics was used to elucidate the relationship between demographic factors and BMI. Results showed that mean age of respondents was 38 years, while 53.3% of the respondents were males. In respect to education, most (46.7%) of the respondents had tertiary education and almost half (46.7%) of the respondents engaged in private businesses. Most (33.3%) of the respondents weighed between 66–72kg and about 33.3% of the respondents were within the height ranged from 1.53 – 1.60m and 1.66 – 1.70m respectively. Outcome of BMI revealed that over 70% of the respondents fell within the normal 2 2 weight group (18.5 – 24.9 kg/m ) while 26.7% were underweight (less than 18.5 kg/m ). Results further showed that there was a significant relationship (p&lt;0.05) between demographic factors (gender 0.048, age 0.038, ethnicity 0.000, religion 0.035, household size 0.004, education, 0.006 and occupation 0.036) and BMI among tuberculosis patients in the study area; also there was a significant relationship (p&lt;0.05) between BMI and anti-tuberculosis drugs. Conclusively, findings revealed that occurrence of tuberculosis was more among the males compared to the females. However, majority of the respondents had normal weight based on the BMI outcome.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Dietary habits of adult residents of Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria 2022-11-12T16:56:07+00:00 Toochukwu James Paulmiki Ide Nyakno Akpan Essien Ebenezer Peter John Ukamaka Scholastica Odoh-Felix Chika Isabelle Ndiokwelu Henrietta Nkechi Ene-Obong <p><strong>Background:</strong> The food consumption habit of an individual or a group is an important factor in determining the nutritional status and overall health of the individual or group.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study was conducted to determine the dietary habits of adults residing in Calabar Metropolis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The WHO standard questionnaire on dietary assessment and related surveys was used to collect data on the dietary habits of adults within the age bracket of 20 – 70 years. The study sampled 500 respondents utilizing a multistage sampling technique. Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) version 22.0 was used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were more females (54.0%) than males (46.0 %) in the study. Majority (89.2%) of the population were young and middle-aged adults (20-59 years). It was found that 39.4% of the respondents went to work or market with meals prepared at home; proportion (44.2%) of those who went to work or market with meals prepared at home did that occasionally. Remarkable proportions (31.4%) and (22.3%) of the respondents respectively consumed snacks and sweetened beverages 3-7 times weekly, whereas 94% skipped one or more meals per day. About ninety-seven percent (96.8%) of the respondents consumed foods very rich in oil/fat, spices/beverages had 100% consumption; even though vegetable consumption was high (94.8%), fruit consumption was relatively low (27.8%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The dietary habits of the population tilt towards an unhealthy end, calling for actions by the nutrition stakeholders to create more awareness in the study area, encouraging the individuals to make healthy food choices. <br><br></p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of Cowpea (Vigna Biflorus) flours produced from germination and fermentation process 2022-11-12T17:11:39+00:00 E.N. Chukwuemeka C.O. Anoshirike M.N Nnam J.U. Chikwendu K.C. Anoshirike <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown across Africa. It is an important cheap nonanimal protein. Processing of cowpea into flour could reduce post-harvest pest damage, improve nutrient quality and increase diversity its uses. Although these practice are often underutilized in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The cowpea harvested from a farm in Ovoko, Igbo-Eze South LGA of Enugu State, Nigeria. Cowpea grains were divided into three portions: unprocessed; germinated only; germinated and fermented for 48hrs. After the three portions of the cowpea were separately, washed, drained, sundried and milled into flours. Unprocessed cowpea flour (UCF); germinated cowpea flour (GCF); germinated and fermented cowpea flour (GFCF). The samples were subjected to nutrients and antinutrients analysis using standard methods. Data were analyzed using Statistical Product for Service Solution (SPSS) version 22. Statistical analysis was done using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range tests was used to compare the means.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study evaluated the Nutrient and Anti-nutrient composition of cowpea (Vigna biflorus) flours produced from germination and fermentation process.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that GFCF had higher protein (20.99%); Fat (2.88%), Fibre (3.29%) and least carbohydrate (68.43%), while UCF had higher ash content (2.98%). GFCF had higher zinc (0.12mg), iron (3.93mg), calcium (3.52mg) and phosphorous (68.90mg). GFCF had reduced in Phytate 4.33mg; Tannins (1.43); Hydrogen Cyanide (4.31); Oxalate (3.55); but increased in Saponin (0.13), respectively.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study shows that germination and fermentation process of cowpea flour improve the nutrient content and reduces the carbohydrate and anti nutrient contents of the cowpea flour.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Phytochemical, antioxidant properties and volatile compounds of tisanes prepared from Aidan (Tetrapleura tetraptera) fruit and Uziza (Piper guineense) seeds 2022-11-12T17:34:53+00:00 Chinelo Vanessa Ezeocha Amarachi Monica Urenwoke <p><strong>Background:</strong> Some local herbs are still underexploited especially in the form of tisanes.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present study aims to assess the potentials of Aidan (Tetrapleura tetraptera) fruit and Uziza (Piper guineense) seeds in the production of tisanes and evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant and volatile compounds of the tisanes.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Uziza seeds and Aidan fruits were sorted, washed, dried and milled before packaging in tea bags (50 g per tea bag) while a commercial lemon grass and ginger tisane was used as control. The tisane infusions were evaluated for their physicochemical, phytochemical, antioxidant, sensory properties and volatile compounds using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The pH of the tisane extracts were slightly acidic (5.30 to 6.54), the saponin contents ranged from 0.05-0.14%, tannin from 22.91-24.33%, phenol from 1.75-2.92% and alkaloid from 3.15-5.39%. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of uziza tisane (73.72mg/100g) was significantly higher than that of aidan fruit (49.29mg/100g) and the control (57.26mg/100g). Forty eight volatile compounds including hydrocarbons (mainly terpenes), aldehydes and alcohols were identified in the tisane samples amongst which were piperine identified in uziza (0.66%) and Apiol in both uziza and aidan fruit (5.43%). Uziza tisane was the least preferred in terms of the sensory parameters while the control was the most preferred.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study showed that uziza and aidan fruit can be used in the production of tisanes with health promoting potentials.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Evaluation of physicochemical, functional and sensory qualities of Ofada rice (Oryza sativa L.)- sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cake 2022-11-12T17:55:59+00:00 Adekola Adegoke Pelumi Ajala Celestina Omohimi Abdul-rasaq Adebowale <p><strong>Background:</strong> There is a compelling need to create suitable wheat alternative, as the demand and price of wheat has been exacerbated by economic realities. Ofada rice-sweet potato-wheat flour mixes could reduce overdependence on wheat flour and increase culinary and industrial utilization of ofada rice and sweet potato.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to make cake out of a combination of ofada rice-sweet potato-wheat flour mixes and improve the nutritional content of the cake .</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The flours were produced using standard laboratory procedures and their samples were analyzed. The results of the chemical and organoleptic analyses were subjected to Analysis of Variance at a significance level of 5% using SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber, and carbohydrate contents varied from 30.23 to 36.08%, 2.05 to 2.43%, 5.29 to 6.08%, 17.21 to 21.36%, 2.95 to 5.88%, and 33.99 to 38.78%, respectively. The functional characteristics (bulk density, water and oil absorption capacity, and foaming capacity) varied from 0.61 to 0.81 g/ml, 139.07 to 168.2%, 120.51 to 126.59%, and 1.50 to 7.25%, respectively. However, sensory evaluation results revealed that composite cake A, D, F, E and G were the best in overall acceptability but, A, D, E and G were the best in volume and weight increase. The sensory analysis revealed that the Sample D cake had similar values to the 100% wheat flour cake.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The cake samples were generally accepted and the wheat flour fortified with ofada rice and sweet potato flours yielded high-quality cakes.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Hypertension and associated factors among community-dwelling rural adults in Abia State, Nigeria 2022-11-13T14:02:03+00:00 Patricia Ogechi Ukegbu Beulah Favour Ortutu Sochima Diara Chinaza Precious Uche Andrew Ugwunna Ukegbu <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hypertension is a growing public health problem in developing countries contributing to morbidity and mortality of billions of adults worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among adults in rural communities of Ikwuano, Abia State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A community-based descriptive cross-sectional survey in rural communities was conducted among 429 apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 59 years using cluster sampling technique.&nbsp; Sociodemographic information was obtained using a validated questionnaire. Blood Pressure (BP) and anthropometric measurements were carried out following standard procedures. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) equal or greater than 140mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) equal or greater than 90mmHg. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors associated with hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of hypertension was 51.0% (58.1% in males and 43.1% in females). Hypertension was significantly associated with age, gender, marital status and BMI. In the adjusted model, older age &gt;40 years) (OR=1.96; 95% CL1.03 to 3.72; p&lt;0.04) and over weight/obesity (OR=2.55; 95% CL1.50 to 4.34; p&lt;0.001) were associated with higher odds of having hypertension. Females gender was associated with lower odds of hypertension compared to males (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.52; p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study showed a high prevalence of hypertension among rural community dwelling adults, underscoring the need for routine screening of adults for early hypertension diagnosis.</p> 2022-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Therapeutic diets for the management of diabetes and arthritis among adults using selected indigenous foods as recipes in Aluu Community, Rivers State 2022-11-13T14:17:05+00:00 A.I. Asouzu M.C Afieroho <p><strong>Background</strong>: In the prevention and management of chronic diseases, intake of a healthy and adequate indigenous diets are found to be essential hence the need for them to be prioritized.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study prepared diets intended for the management of diseases such as diabetes and arthritis, from developed recipes using selected indigenous foods and evaluated their nutrient compositions.</p> <p>Methods: Ten diets namely: sweet potatoes vegetable pudding (SPV), fried tapioca salad (FTS), vigna pottage delicacy (VPD), steamed whole cowpea (SWC), pleurotus wheatmix flakes (PWF), corn garden egg pudding (CGP), papaya fruit salad (PFS), savory star ginger fruitveg drink (SGF), pumpkin squash cucumber salad (PSC) and avocado cucumber salad (ACS) were prepared from developed recipes. AOAC analytical methods were used in determining the nutrient compositions. Sensory characteristics were done using the nine point hedonic scales by 12 trained panelists. One way analysis of variance was used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The diets from developed recipes contained appreciable amount of nutrients especially vitamin C, fiber and protein with PWF having the highest contents of fibre (1.68g/100g) and vitamin C (68.15mg/100g). With reference to protein, SWC diet had the highest content (1.80g/100g). VPD had the highest content of vitamin E (7.80mg/100g) and calcium (2.66mg/100g). The carbohydrate (2.30-20.05g/100g) and fat (0.35-4.41g/100g) contents of the diets were low. The result also showed that SWC has got highest acceptance by all sensory parameters except for its aroma.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The therapeutic diets developed and analysed in this study contained appreciable mount of nutrients especially vitamin C, fiber and protein. A well combined indigenous foods could be used for the management of diseases such as diabetes and arthritis and for improvement of general nutritional status.</p> 2022-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Breastfeeding knowledge, exclusive breast-feeding duration, and perception of insufficient breast milk supply among lactating mothers in Ikwuano LGA of Abia State 2022-11-15T17:41:54+00:00 Elizabeth M Okonkwo Gideon Iheme Happiness C Ezenwa Chigozirim A. Amaeze Miracle I Ofoha <p><strong>Background</strong>: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria is still suboptimal Mothers' breastfeeding knowledge and perception of breast milk supply is integral to achieving optimum breastfeeding.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study determined exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) knowledge, duration, and Perception of Insufficient Milk Supply (PIMS) among lactating mothers in Ikwuano LGA.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Three hundred and fifty lactating mothers were randomly selected from five Primary Health Care centers in Ikwuano LGA. A semi-structured questionnaire that comprised of socio-demographic characteristics, EBF knowledge and practice questions and Perceived Insufficient Milk Supply scale was used to elicit information from mother and infant (0-9 months) pairs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results revealed that 58% of mothers had a good EBF knowledge. The mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 3 months and only 24.1% practiced exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. About 54% of the respondents perceived insufficient milk supply Mothers used less sensitive indicators such as infant satiety cues and enough breast milk in the breast to identify PIMS, while sensitive indicators like weight gain and wet diapers were less reported. Inadequate food and drink intake was found to be responsible for most (65%) of mothers perceived reason for insufficient milk supply.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The duration of exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding rate was below the national target. Improving mothers' breastfeeding knowledge and educating them on the correct way of identifying insufficient milk supply are important determinants in achieving the six months EBF practices.&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Risk of bacterial infection from selected fermented milk products in Abakaliki Metropolis 2023-04-18T05:17:07+00:00 Chidinma Nnenne David Eucharia Okonkwo Ebuka Elijah David Doris Olachi Obasi Shedrack Chinedu Ogunwa Shedrack Chidiebere Kanu Jerius Nkwuda Ejeje Tochukwu Nnamdi Onyemuche Chidinma Felicia Ezennaya Uket Nta Obeten <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study was aimed at evaluating the risk of bacterial infection from fermented fura de nunu milk product consumed in Abakaliki metropolis.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>:Twenty five (25) samples of nunu and fura de nunu each were purchased from different vendors at Hausa Quarters' Market in Abakaliki metropolis. Bacteria were isolated using differential and selective media and identified using standard biochemical tests. Molecular identification was performed by amplification of 16S rDNA. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> A total of 90 bacterial isolates from fura de nunu (56) and nunu (34) samples were isolated. The total bacteria count and mean bacteria colony forming units were significantly higher (P≤0.05) in fura de nunu (57±26.5), (11.4±5.3) than in nunu (24±14.1), (4.8±2.8) respectively. All the bacteria isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, meropenem, amoxycilin–clavulanic acid and susceptible to imipenem and gentamicin. Eighty five (94%) of the bacteria isolates were resistant to ceftriazone while (6%) showed intermediate zone of inhibition. About 58% of the bacteria isolates were resistant to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprime, while 42% of the isolates showed susceptibility with multidrug resistance observed in over 90% of the isolates. Out of 58 isolates used, 64% and 26% exhibited hemolytic and hemmagutination properties.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is evident that fura de nunu may be a source of different bacterial infections capable of causing food-borne illnesses, food intoxication and gastroenteritis.<br><br></p> 2022-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Evaluation of the effect of dried rumen digesta on feed intake and growth performance of giant African land snail (Achatina achatina ) 2022-11-13T17:20:05+00:00 Michael Onwumere Melody N. Modebelu <p><strong>Background</strong>: The seasonality of plant materials and the high cost of purchasing the ingredients and in formulating snail feed are the factors that deter the rearing of snails. Effort should be directed towards feeding snails with cheap and locally available, but rich feed ingredients to minimize the effect of high cost of compounded feed, to ensure continuity of snail production all year round.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The study examined the effect of dried rumen digesta on feed intake and growth performance of Giant African land snail (Achatina achatina).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study adopted an experimental research with completely randomized design (CRD) while simple random sampling technique was used to obtain forty-eight Giant African land snail was used as sample for the study. The experimental diets were formulated using adjustable Pearson's square method of feed formulation to contain dried rumen digesta at 0%, 5% and 10% inclusion level respectively. The feed intake was measured by a weigh-back technique while the length and width were measured using Venier caliper. One way Analysis of Variance ANOVA was used for the running of the analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The feed intake of Giant African land snail (Achatina achatina ) in treatment 2 ( T2) with 10% rumen digesta showed the highest mean value of 121.05, showing that rumen digesta is useful as an economic replacement for energy feed ingredients as cereals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Extension agents should embark upon mass sensitization on benefits of feeding dried rumen digesta to snails at the levels of 5-10% for a cost effective snail production.</p> 2022-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Weight change, haematology and lipid profile of normal male Wistar rats fed on high-calorie diet and vegetables 2022-11-13T17:34:57+00:00 B.K. Adeoye G.O. Dada O.O. Oyerinde A.R. Akinlade I. Esiaba O.A. Adewole <p><strong>Background</strong>: The decline in vegetable consumption, some of which are gradually getting extinct because of insufficient information on their health benefits, is a major factor for the rise in the incidence of <br>nutritional disorders.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Effect of Amaranthus hybridus, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Senecio biafrae and Corchorus olitorius on the weight, haematology, and lipid profile of rats fed on high-calorie diet.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study comprised of six groups of male Wistar rats. Positive control (A) was fed on regular feed and water while the negative control (B) was fed a high-calorie diet. The four treatment groups were given high-calorie diet along with 5 % of one of the four vegetables for five weeks respectively. The weights of the rats were obtained before and after the experiment. The feed and water consumption of the rats were recorded daily. The haematology and the lipid profile were determined at the end of the experiment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The composition of the feeds was significantly different (p&lt;0.05). The mean weekly water intake (332 ml) and feed consumption (92 g) of the positive control were not significantly different while its mean weight change (22 g) was significant at p&lt;0.05. S. biafrae increased non-significantly the PCV (48.25 %), 9 haemoglobin (16.25 g/dl) and platelet count (289 ×10<sup>9</sup> / L). A. hybridus lowered the total cholesterol (89.93 mg/dl), triglyceride (45.38 mg/dl) and LDL (77.65 mg/dl) while S. biafrae increased the HDL (44.65 mg/dl) level.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The effect of the high-calorie diet was better ameliorated by A. hybridus and S. biafrae.<br><br><br></p> 2022-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A comparative assessment of high blood pressure and its dietary risk factors among teaching and non-teaching staff of University of Lagos, Nigeria 2022-11-13T17:47:05+00:00 Florence N. Uchendu Oluwakemi O. Odukoya <p><strong>Background</strong>: High-blood-pressure is a silent-killer and one of the leading causes of death globally. <br><br><strong>Objective</strong>: This study assessed and compared high-blood-pressure and its dietary-risk-factors among teaching-and non-teaching staff of University of Lagos, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A three-stage sampling-technique was used to select 978 respondents from 9 out of 12 University faculties/Senate-building. Respondents' socio-demographic-information and HBP dietary-risk-factors were collected using an adapted pre-tested version of WHO-STEPwise-questionnaire. Blood-pressure was measured using an automatic blood-pressure monitor, sphygmomanometer. Data was analysed using descriptive-statistics, student-t-test and binary-logistic-regression at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean ages were teaching (TS) 48.9±8.56years and non-teaching-staff (NTS) 41.8±9.40years. Systolic-BP was 127.1±13.44 mmHg and 123.6±16.15mmHg for TS and NTS respectively; Diastolic-BP 79.6±7.68mmHg and 78.6±9.57mmHg for TS and NTS respectively. HBP was 24.2% and 22.9% for TS and NTS using 2003-JNC7 while 2017-guideline was 64.7% and 51.1% for TS and NTS respectively. Fruits were consumed ≥3days/week by TS (68.1%) and &lt;3days/week by NTS (50.2%). Vegetables were consumed ≥3days/week by TS (60.5%) and NTS (52.4%); Alcohol: 1-2 days/week 12.6% and 19.5% for TS and NTS; Addition of extra salt to meals always 2.6% and 3.3% by TS and NTS. Processed-foods consumed always 9.7% and 15.6% by TS and NTS. Statistically significant association existed between dietary-risk-factors and HBP (p&lt;0.05). HBP-odds among teaching-staff increased with low-consumption of vegetables (&lt;3 days/week) (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: (1.17-3.03); p=0.009) and high-consumption of vegetable-oil (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: (1.08 - 2.80); p=0.022).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Hypertensive non-teaching-staff consumed more of dietary-risk-factors of HBP than teaching-staff. Workplace nutrition-education and awareness campaign is very crucial.</p> 2022-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Assessment of nutrient intake among rural farming households in Imo State, Nigeria 2022-11-13T17:57:55+00:00 Evelyn Njideka Bede Chisom Norberth Uwandu Oluwaseun Ariyo Emeka Festus Odoemenam Emmanuel Ekene Odega Tomilola Juliana Ojo <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adequate nutrient intake is one of the key promoters of good health. An inadequate diet, poor in both quantity and quality constitutes the major reason for high level of malnutrition among farming households.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The study assessed nutrient intake among rural farming households in Imo State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A four-staged sampling technique was used to select a total of 122 farming households in Imo state. Purposively, caregivers in each of the selected households were interviewed. Analysis of nutrient intake was performed using Food Processor Software version 11.7.1, while all statistical analysis were performed using SPSS version 23.0. Usual nutrient intake of the farming households' caregivers were compared with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). Caregivers' anthropometric parameters were obtained using standard instruments</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Averagely, households' breadwinner's monthly income, years spent in education by households' caregivers, and household size were ₦45000±33500, 12.99±2.53, and 5±2 respectively. Almost half (51.6%) of the households' caregivers had normal weight. Average contribution of protein, fat and carbohydrate to the total energy intake were adequate for the households' caregivers. Compared to recommendations, all the caregivers aged 19-30 years had inadequate intakes of vitamins D and K. Over 83.0% of the households' caregivers aged 31-50 years had inadequate intake of calcium. However, more than 78.0% of the households' caregivers in each of the age group had excess intake of copper.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study therefore concludes that mean intake of potassium, calcium, vitamins D and K for the farming households in the study area were inadequate, while protein intake was adequate.</p> 2022-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Demographic characteristics and healthcare utilization among mothers with under-5 children in Rivers State Nigeria 2022-11-15T16:37:33+00:00 Ucheoma A. Asiegbu Grace T . Fadupin <p><strong>Background</strong>: Nearly half of the children under five years of age globally die annually mostly from preventable and treatable causes. Adequate healthcare utilization has been identified as a means of child survival which is dependent on women's activities and empowerment. <br><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study was designed to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics on Healthcare Utilization (HCU) of mothers with under-5 children in Rivers state. <br><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was adopted to select data on 330 mother/child pairs in six Local Government Areas in Rivers state using a four-stage stratified random sampling method. An interview-administered structured questionnaire was used. HCU was scored. Descriptive statistics, the Chi-Square test and the general linear modelling were used to analyse the data.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Mothers' age was 29.03±5.66, about 52% had fair HCU and 48.4% had good utilization in the state. More mothers in the Riverine area (62.3%) had good healthcare utilization than mothers in the upland area (42.1%). Single mothers had lower healthcare utilization (p = 0.018) than married mothers. Maternal demographic characteristics generally accounted for about 14% variation in HCU among mothers with under-5 children in Rivers state.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Maternal healthcare utilization was fair. Maternal demographic characteristics are important factors that can influence healthcare utilization among mothers in Rivers state. This study, therefore recommends a sensitization program to improve healthcare utilization among mothers in Rivers state.</p> 2022-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Nutrient and mineral contents of traditional porridge 'Ikokore' prepared with different yam species 2022-11-15T16:52:28+00:00 Ganiyu Babatunde Adebayo Gloria Aderonke Otunola Fisayo Abraham Bamisaye Titilayo Olubunmi Oyegoke <p><strong>Background</strong>: “Ikokore” is originated from Ijebu tribe located in Ogun State but the meal has gained popularity and prepared among many other tribes of Nigeria this day. However, little is known about the nutritional status of this meal. Therefore this study aimed at investigating and comparing the nutrient contents of this meal.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Equal amount of water, smoked fish, grounded pepper, fermented melon seed and salt were added into each pot corresponding to a yam specie, mixed and boiled for 10 minutes. Then 500 g each of peeled and grated yam species were added to each pot and again boil for 10 minutes. Finally, equal amount of palm oil was also added and allowed to simmer for another 10 minutes and thereafter stirred well to obtain “Ikokore” meal. Their proximate analysis, macronutrients and mineral contents were then determined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> “Ikokore” from D. alata had significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) moisture (74.58%), ash 10.74%) and protein (8.70%) contents compared with those of D. rotundata and C. esculenta. “Ikokore” from D. rotundata had highest fibre (4.00%) compared with others. D. alata contains the highest number of minerals compared with the other two species. However, potassium (4.983 ± 149.00 g/ppm) and iron (2216.834 ± 100 g/ppm) contents of “ikokore” prepared with D. rotundata were significantly higher than those of D. alata and C. esculenta. Manganese was not detected in the meals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The three “Ikokore” meals are fairly good sources of energy, minerals and other nutrient macromolecules with D. alata revealing better results.</p> 2022-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Nutrition knowledge, complementary feeding practices and use of food labels amongst young mothers in Owerri Metropolis 2022-11-15T17:02:10+00:00 I.C. Akujobi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Maternal nutrition knowledge is important for the selection of appropriate foods that will meet the nutritional demands of infants.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the nutrition knowledge, complementary feeding practices and use of food label among young mothers in Owerri Metropolis.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: It was a cross sectional survey comprising of 300 mothers between 18-30 years. Respondents for the study were randomly drawn from mothers attending maternal and child health clinic in five hospitals and five maternity clinics as well as five private crèche and five public crèche in Owerri metropolis, Imo state. A well-structured and validated questionnaire was administered to collect information on socio economic data, nutritional knowledge, complementary feeding practices and use of food label. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's bivariate correlations with SPSS version 21.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Approximately 36.3% of the respondents had Masters degree, 58.0% were civil servants while 66.7% had good nutrition knowledge. Approximately 50.7% of the respondents introduced complementary foods at 3 months, pap was the major complementary food given by 65.3% of the respondents, 72% stopped breastfeeding at 9-12 months while 54.3% feed their infants up to 7 times daily. Most (95.3%) of the respondents read food labels, 60.0% regard food label to be very important while 56.3% seek for best before date.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study revealed that more than half of the mothers in Owerri metropolis have good nutrition knowledge, however the complementary feeding practices and utilization of food labels are still poor.</p> 2022-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Assessment of breastfeeding practices of working mothers in Ilaro, Ogun State 2022-11-15T17:13:54+00:00 A.B. Adepoju J.O. Makanjuola <p><strong>Background</strong>: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is important for optimal growth and development of infant. However, increase in women involvement in labor sector may pose a great barrier to this. Thus, this study assessed the breastfeeding practices of working mothers in Ilaro.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study involving 200 working mothers selected from Ilaro community using multistage sampling. Semi-structured and self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit data on socio demographic and economic characteristics, job description, belief on breastfeeding and breastfeeding practices of the respondents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25.0.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: More than half (59.0%) of the respondents were employed in private organizations and 41.0% were civil servants. Majority (72%) of the respondents work between 8am- 4pm daily. Nearly all the respondents (93.0%) breastfed their babies their infant from birth, 76.5% gave colostrum and 50% do breast feed their baby only when demanded. Four out of five breastfeed their infant during the working hour while 5.5% and 10.5% expressed their breast milk and gave infant formula respectively during the working hour. More than half (63%) of the respondents had good breastfeeding practices while 23% and 13% were rated fair and poor respectively. Significant associated (p&lt; 0.05) was observed between respondent's breastfeeding practices and some socio demographic characteristics, job description and <br>belief on breast feeding practices.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Good breastfeeding practices were observed among the study population and this was significantly associated with factors like age, estimated monthly income, place of work and some belief on breastfeeding.</p> 2022-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Nutritional status and micronutrients adequacy of food consumed by adolescents in school in Abeokuta 2022-11-15T17:30:58+00:00 Gbenga S Oladosu Oyefunmilayo S Amoda Bolanle R Olajide Ebenezer P John Oluseye O Onabanjo <p><strong>Background</strong>: Micronutrient and nutritional deficiencies remain a serious nutritional problem of significant importance in low-income countries especially Nigeria. Adolescents are vulnerable because they are at a stage of biological and psychological growth and nutrition inadequacy at this stage will have serious nutritional and health consequences.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The study assessed the nutritional status and micronutrients adequacy of food consumed by adolescents in school in Abeokuta, Ogun state.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The study design was descriptive and cross-sectional involving multistage sampling for the selection of 200 respondents from public secondary schools in Abeokuta North and South. Data were obtained on socio-demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and anthropometry of the respondents using a structured self-administered questionnaire, repeated 24-hour dietary recall and standard procedures. Data were analyzed and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significance was established at p≤0.05</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion</strong>: Result revealed that majority (94%) of the respondents were within the age range of 14-19years, 42% of the respondents consumed breakfast in school, 57.5%, 37.5% and 5% had good, fair, and poor nutritional knowledge respectively. The nutritional status estimation revealed that 31% of the total respondents were stunted, while 50% were thin. There was significant micronutrient inadequacy of vitamin A, carotene, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, folate, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, iron, and zinc.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study established substantial micronutrients inadequacy and increased prevalence of undernutrition among the study respondents.</p> 2022-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0