Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences <p>The Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences (ISSN 0189-0913), official Journal of the Nutrition Society of Nigeria, is a peer-reviewed publication and is published biannually, two volumes per year.</p> <p>The primary focus of the journal is the publication of basic and applied studies in nutritional sciences and related fields. The following types of manuscripts are considered: original research articles, review articles, issues and opinions, special communications, letters to the Editor, book reviews, and proceedings of symposia. The journal is intended for a wide audience, including, nutritionists, dieticians, biochemists, health professionals, home economists, policy makers, students of nutrition and related fields, health educators, and all those in the health sciences. Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Nutrition Society of Nigeria en-US Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences 0189-0913 <p>Manuscripts are accepted for publication with the understanding that no substantial part has been, or will be published elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright is transferred to the publisher if and when the articles, including reprints, photographic reproduction and translation are published. Copyright owner is the Nutrition Society of Nigeria. An abstract at the beginning of an article may be reproduced without specific permission provided the original citation is provided. Statements made and opinions expressed in letters to the editor, editorials, presidential address, book reviews, and other special articles appearing in this journal are views of the author(s) and do not necessary reflect the position of the journal or the Nutrition Society of Nigeria.</p> Functional, Nutritional and Sensory Characteristics of Biscuits Improved with Plantain, Breadfruit and Termite Flour <p><strong>Background</strong>: High cost of wheat flour in non-wheat producing countries poses an economic problem.<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: The potentials of plantain, breadfruit and termite in biscuit making as well as the nutritional and sensory characteristics of the processed biscuits were investigated.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The food crops and termite were processed into flour and the functional properties determined. The flours were combined in different proportions to obtain composite flours; (40% wheat, 30% breadfruit &amp; 30% plantain), (40% wheat, 30% breadfruit &amp; 30% termite), (40% wheat, 30% plantain &amp; 30% termite) and (30% breadfruit, 40% plantain &amp; 30% termite). Commercial wheat flour was used as control. Biscuits were baked using the composite flours and evaluated for nutrient composition and sensory attributes. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 21. Significance was accepted at p &lt; 0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The biscuit made with only commercial wheat was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) low in protein (6.24%) and fat (20.01%) content. Biscuits processed from composite flours had significantly (p &lt; 0.05) high amount of folate and vitamin B compared to the control. Sensory characteristics of biscuits made with 6 blends of wheat, breadfruit and plantain flours were comparable to the control.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Highly nutritious and low cost biscuits could be produced by incorporating plantain, breadfruit and termite into wheat flour.</p> Peace N. Ani Edith U. Madukwe Ugonne F. Ugwuanyi Copyright (c) 2021-10-31 2021-10-31 42 2 1 10 Assessment of Dietary Diversity and Nutritional Status of Young Nigerian Undergraduates <p><strong>Background</strong>: Lack of nutrition information is a serious challenge facing young adults in some countries resulting in their ignorance of the nutritional values of various foods.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study determined the dietary diversity of undergraduate students of Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo (AEFUNAI).<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 470 students (234 males and 236 females) between the ages of 17-27 years. A pre-tested semi-structured interviewer–administered questionnaire was used to collect socio- demographic information and 24-hour diet recall.<br>Anthropometric data was collected using standard procedures. Dietary diversity (DD) was determined using 14-food group dietary diversity model and terciles were created to categorize individual dietary diversity (low: 1-4; average: 5-9; high: 10-14). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Chi-square. Statistical significance was determined at 5% level (P &lt;0.05).<br><strong>Results</strong>: Mean age, height, weight and BMI of respondents were 21.2± 2.5 years, 1.69 ± 0.03m, 64.4 ± 2 9.2kg and 22.7 ± 3.0kg/m respectively. Obesity was significantly higher in females (22.9%) than males (9.8%), (P &lt; 0.05). Dietary diversity scores (DDS) was 5.0 ±2.74, and majority (57.9%) scored low. Food consumption by the respondents was significantly different (p&lt;0.05) in two food groups. More males (53.9%) skipped lunch while more females (43.9%) skipped breakfast.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The respondents had low dietary diversity with obesity higher in females than males.<br>Nutrition education on adequate dietary practices is recommended.</p> Gertrude Nneka Onyeji Patience Nkemjika Ogbu Nwogo Ajuka Obasi Anosike Francis Chidi Copyright (c) 2021-10-31 2021-10-31 42 2 11 19 Preliminary Studies on Status of Nutrition Labeling of Pre-Packaged Food Products in Markets of Lagos Metropolis in Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Nutrition labelling regulations have been in use in various countries since the United States Food and Drug Administration published its first regulations in 1973. The Pre-packaged Food Labelling Regulations came into use in Nigeria in 1995.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: This study examined the nutrition labelling formats and shelf display practices, x-raying of the traditional back-of pack (BOP) labels and the emerging new front-of-pack (FOP) labels in open markets, mini supermarkets and large-scale supermarkets in the Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methodology</strong>: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design was conducted to evaluate nutrition labelling formats in 162 purposively selected samples of pre-packaged products. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and presented in tables and figures.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Open markets, mini-supermarkets and large-scale supermarkets accounted for 24%, 5% and 71% of the total sample population, respectively. Apart from the 'eye logo', most of the logos found on the labels were voluntary and presently not regulated, hence did not follow any consistent format. Only 4% of these products had the Front-of-Pack labelling format, and these were mostly imported products of multinationals, while 96% of products carried the Back-of-Pack label, comprising both local and imported<br>brands. It was noted that all products on display shelves were usually arranged in such a way as to communicate the brand name without any consideration for nutrition information.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These preliminary findings highlight the position of nutrition labelling in Nigeria and the need for an urgent review of the present labelling regulations for better consumer communication and alignment with global trends.</p> Olugbenga A. B. Ogunmoyela Kingsley Kola Akinroye Tola Atinmo Isaac A. Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2021-10-31 2021-10-31 42 2 20 32 Nutrient Composition and Acceptability of Soy Enriched Gari: Implications for Food Security in Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Gari, granular flour is one of the major staple foods in Nigeria. It has a drawback with regard to its crude protein content which is as low as 1%. There is a need to enrich gari with local legumes to improve nutrient content and acceptability.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: The study examined the nutrient composition and general acceptability of soy enriched gari products.<br><strong>Method:</strong> Improved Cassava TMS 30575 and raw Soybean seeds were used. Cassava tubers were peeled, washed, milled, fermented spontaneously for five days and dewatered. Soybean seeds were boiled in 2.5% sodium bicarbonate for 20 minutes to remove beany taste, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. Dewatered cassava mash was enriched with soybean flour at varying proportions to generate three samples at the ratio of 100g cassava mash:10g soybean flour (sample A), 100g cassava mash:20 soybean flour (sample B) and 100 cassava mash:30 soybean flour (sample C) to obtain soy-gari, while two other samples containing cassava mash only and cassava mash with 20ml palm oil served as controls. The effect of the enrichment on proximate content of the soy- samples and acceptability of the cooked paste (eba and fufu) and snack (soaked gari) were evaluated. Nutrient composition was determined following standard procedure, while. Sensory evaluation was carried out with a twenty-man panel using a nine – point hedonic scale. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to compare the means of the samples. Duncan's new multiple range was used for mean separation at 5% probability.<br><strong>Result:</strong> The result showed that the strong acid taste of gari which is desirable was not affected by enrichment with soybean. The moisture content of the samples was considerably low and is capable of having long shelf life. The nutrient content of the samples improved with the addition of soybean flour in all the nutrients evaluated. Its consumption as Fufu was generally accepted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The enrichment of gari with soybean flour improved its nutrient content and has potential to reduce malnutrition and food insecurity among the rural poor in Nigeria who depend on largely on gari as a major staple.</p> F.C. Okwulehie S.N, Lemchi G.O. Iheme J.N. Obi-Anyanwu Copyright (c) 2021-10-31 2021-10-31 42 2 33 40 Nutritional Status and Functional Capacity of Elderly in Selected Communities in Ibadan, Oyo State <p><strong>Background</strong>: Elderly are vulnerable to malnutrition due to some age related factors. Continuous evaluation of these factors will help in reducing this risk.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed the nutritional status and functional capacity of elderly in selected communities in Ibadan, Oyo state.<br><strong>Method</strong>: A cross-sectional study involving 450 elderly selected using multistage sampling techniques from four local government areas in Ibadan. Socio-demographic characteristic of the respondents was obtained using a semi-structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Data on dietary intake was obtained using 24 hours dietary recall. Weight (kg) and height (m) measurement was done and Body Mass 2 Index {BMI (kg/m )} was calculated. Functional capacity was assessed using Bristol activity of daily living and Lawton and Brody instrumental activities of daily living scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS. version 20.0<br><strong>Results</strong>: More than half (56%) of the respondents were female, 62% had no formal education, 27% were petty trader and estimated monthly income of majority (36.4%) of the respondents was ₦1,000-₦5,000. 66.7% had normal BMI, 17.1% were underweight while 8.2% of the respondents were overweight. Intake of Energy and nutrients like Protein, Fibre, vitamin C and Calcium were below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) while Carbohydrate intake was above the RDA. 91.0% and 71.0% were functional independent in basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living respectively. Significant (p&lt; 0.05) association was observed between the level of functional impairment and BMI of the respondents.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Functional capacity is a factor that is independently associated with nutritional status of elderly.</p> A. B. Adepoju I. O. Olayiwola O.O. Onabanjo O.A. Lasode Copyright (c) 2021-10-31 2021-10-31 42 2 41 52 Analysis of the Effects of Pasteurization on Proximate, Atwater Factor and Acceptability of Smoothie from Banana, Carrot and Soymilk Blends <p><strong>Background</strong>: Single fruit consumption results in loss of appetite and consumption due to monotony of flavor thereby results in lack of functional nutrient inherent in fruits and vegetables. These functional nutrients prevent such chronic diseases like cancer, stroke among others alongside same health benefits. Conversely, combination of different fruits improves flavour and consumption thereby enhances phytonutrient consumption with reduced risk of chronic disease.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> As smoothies are pasteurized before short time storage in fridge by some people, this research understudied the effect of pasteurization on the proximate, Atwater factor and acceptability of smoothie from the blend of ripe banana, carrot and soymilk.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Banana, carrot slices and soymilk were blended with variable speed kitchen blender in varying proportions to produce four samples of pasteurized and unpasteurized smoothie samples. The smoothie samples were subjected to proximate and acceptability using standard analytical methods. Energy values were by calculation using the Atwater factor.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Proximate composition of both pasteurized and unpasteurized smoothie samples showed that moisture ranged from 88.33 to 90.42%, ash 0.75 to 0.88%, crude protein 3.74 to 3.91%, crude fibre 0.14 to1.17%, fat 2.65 to 3.15% and, carbohydrate 2.82 to 3.90%. Energy values ranged from 154.02 to 211.470 Kj/100g.Sensory scores for taste ranged from 4 to 7, appearance 5 to 7, consistency 5 to 6 and general acceptability 5 to 7.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed that pasteurization affected the proximate composition, energy values and acceptability of all the smoothie blends and therefore should be a matter of choice.</p> I. N. Okwunodulu D. C . Iyida C. J. Okakpu K. G. Okakpu Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 53 62 The Nutritive Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Some Vegetable Soups During Frozen Storage <p><strong>Background</strong>: Storage of soups at -18 ℃ are used to preserve and avoid nutritional losses which may arise as a result of periodical heating. Unfortunately, continuous supply of electricity is not always available to majority of Nigerian homes resulting to an adverse loss of soup quality due to several thaw cycles.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the nutritive composition and antioxidant activity of some vegetable soups during frozen storage.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Ugu (TVS) and oha (PVS) vegetable soups were prepared with some other ingredients. Standard methods were used to evaluate the nutritive composition and antioxidant activity of the soups during frozen storage.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that the proximate values of TVS soup: fat (15.15 – 15.80%), fibre (13.00 – 13.80%), protein (17.15 – 18.30%), and ash contents (10.70 – 10.90%) were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher than the fat (10.70- 11.60%), fibre (9.00 – 9.80%), protein (15.35 – 16.0%), and ash contents (8.90 – 9.60%) of PVS soup. Minerals (Mg, P, Zn, Fe) and vitamins (A and E) followed the same trend. However, there was stronger scavenging power of %DPPH, ABTS and FRAP in PVS than TVS soup. %DPPH, ABTS and FRAP values were 60.86 – 62.04%, 26.42 – 27.52 mg/GAE/g, and 20.02 – 20.63 μmolTE/g in PVS soup, whereas, that of TVS soup were 37.68 – 43.12%, 3.04 – 3.75 μmolTE/g, and 8.26 – 10.43 mgGAE/g. It was observed that polyphenols and vitamin C contributed to strong DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP scavenging activity.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The soups can serve as functional food, improve nutrition and the boosting of physiological health to consumers.</p> Anthony Ukom Nkeiru Nwanagba Nwamaka Obeta Henrietta Nwude Chisom Obute Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 63 71 Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of Raw and Cooked Raffia Palm (<i>Raphia farinifera</i>) Fruits from Nupe Land, Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: : Raffia palm (<em>Raphia farinifera</em>) fruit belongs to the family of Arecaceae.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: The work is aimed at evaluating the nutritional and anti-nutritional analysis of Raffia palm (<em>Raphia farinifera</em>) fruit from Nupe land.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The fresh fruits of Raphia farinifera were cooked for two hours before carrying out the analysis. The parameters analyzed involve proximate composition (moisture, crude fiber, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and energy contents), minerals (calcium, potassium, sodium, iron, and magnesium), and antinutritional factors (oxalate, tannin, phytate, and cyanide) using standard procedures and methods.<br><strong>Results</strong>: High levels of moisture (20.90%) and carbohydrate (83.34%) were noted in boiled Raphia farinifera than in the raw samples. However, a low level of ash (2.97%), protein (1.24%), fiber (0.50%), fat (2.30%), and energy (341Kcal/100g) were observed in the boiled Raphia farinifera than in the raw one. The mineral contents in the boiled sample were reduced significantly (p&lt;0.05) compared to the raw one. Reductions of antinutritional factors to the levels of their permission limit were noted in the cooked samples compared to the raw one.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Therefore, the Raphia farinifera fruit consumption after cooking could be beneficial to the health of consumers and help in combating the problem of malnutrition in Nigeria.</p> Ndatsu Yakubu Dunason Solomon David Hassana Abubakar Fatima Gogo Mayaki Mary Ladidi Abu Hadiza Mohammed Usman Boko Hamza Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 72 79 Nutritional Composition, Sensory Properties and Microbial Status of Kunun Zaki Fortied with Ground Nut Protein Concentrates <p><strong>Background</strong>: Kunun zaki is a cereal based beverage that is highly consumed in Northern Nigeria, but gaining fast popularity all over the country. However, Kunun zaki is mainly a carbohydrate food that is deficient in protein. Kunun zaki will be nutritionally adequate if its protein content is improved with<br>groundnut protein concentrates which could be locally sourced.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: The study investigated the nutrient composition, sensory and microbial properties of kunun zaki fortified with ground nut protein concentrates.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Kunun zaki made from millet was fortified with groundnut protein concentrates at levels of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. The proximate composition, essential amino acid, sensory and microbial properties were determined using standard methods of analysis. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA)<br><strong>Results</strong>: Sample (KN30) had the highest protein (17.8 mg/100g), fat (2.7 mg/100g), ash (2.8 mg/100g), fiber (3.2 mg/100g) and lowest Moisture (65.2 mg/100g) and carbohydrate (8.3 mg/100g) content than other samples. Sample (KN30) had the highest content of lysine (4.3 g/100g), tryptophan (2.6 g/100g) and phenylalanine (3.1 g/100g).Total solids increased from 13% in the control to 25.6% in KN30. All H samples had P range of 4.0 to 4.2. Samples were microbiologically shelf stable up to 24h of storage at room temperature.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Fortification of kunun zaki with ground nut protein concentrates up to 30% level improved protein, energy, ash and fibre content of the beverage.. Addition of groundnut protein concentrates showed no adverse effects on the sensory and microbial properties of Kunun zaki.</p> Peter Awodi Yusufu Joseph Oghenewogaga Owheruo Mofoluwaso Olufunmilola Ojo Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 80 87 Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods and Anthropometric Status of Adolescents in Aba North LGA Abia State, Nigeria. <p><strong>Background</strong>: Ultra-processed foods are food and drink products that go through different types of food processing. They typically contain little or no intact foods, and are ready to eat and drink.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: This study assessed the consumption of ultra-processed food, drinks, and anthropometric status of adolescents in Aba North Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional survey using multistage sampling technique was conducted among 439 adolescents from in Aba North Local Government Area. A well-structured and validated questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-economic status, frequency of consumption of ultra-processed<br>foods and anthropometric measurements of height and weight. Respondents were subjected to anthropometric measurements using standard technique. WHO Anthro plus was used to analyze anthropometric data. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics and Chi-square using SPSS version 23.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The respondents comprised mostly of female adolescents (56.0%), while 44.0% were male.&nbsp; Majority (65.4%) were within the ages of 16-19 years and 36.4% were within the ages of 12-15 years. Cakes were consumed daily by 65.6% of the respondents. Most of the respondents consumed soft drinks<br>(74.7%), packaged breads (68.8%), cookies (71.8%) and instant noodles (59.9%) from time to time. About 77.6% of the female respondents were obese. More females (48.7%) were obese than males (28.9%). Also 5.3% of the respondents were overweight. There was a significant relationship between the consumption of margarine (p&lt;0.000), sausage (p&lt;0.000), chips (p&lt;0.000), canned vegetables (p&lt;0.000), pasta (p&lt;0.000) and obesity.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was a significant association between the consumption of some ultra processed foods and obesity. There was a high prevalence of obesity amongst the respondents.</p> A.D. Oguizu E.U. Celestine Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 88 95 Nutritional Status and Dietary Diversity among Fertility Impaired Women in Ibadan, Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Excess weight gain and poor dietary intake pose adverse effects on health and productivity of women of reproductive age.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed association between nutritional status, dietary diversity and fertility.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Study design was cross sectional, carried out among 210 fertility-impaired women who attended gynaecological clinics of University College Hospital and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. A semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire and adapted Dietary diversity Questionnaire was developed to determine respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and dietary diversification respectively. Height (m), weight (kg) and body fat (%) were measured. Data collected were analysed by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.0. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Association of variables was determined by chi-square having p&lt;0.05.<br><strong>Results</strong>: More than half (53.3%) of respondents were within 30-39 years. Monthly average income was ₦30,000 ($187.5). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, secondary infertility, primary infertility and sexually transmitted infections (STI) was 40.5%, 32.8%, 55.5%, 44.5% and 28.5% respectively. Only 38.6% had experienced infertility beyond five years. Highly diverse diets were consumed by only 51.0% of respondents. Fruits and vegetable, organ meat, eggs, milk and milk products, meat and fish were not poorly consumed. Infertility was associated with increased Body Mass Index (p꞊0.042), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) (p꞊0.000), age (p꞊0.000), religion (p꞊0.020), occupation (p꞊0.003) and monthly income (p꞊0.036) were significantly associated with infertility.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Majority of infertile women in this study were overweight, obese, and physically inactive, experienced abdominal adiposity and secondary infertility</p> Joel E. Okolosi Grace T. Fadupin Oluwasiji O. Olaitan Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 96 105 Assessment of Mineral and Antinutritional Qualities of <i>Ceiba Pentandra</i> Succulent and Matured Leaves <p><strong>Background</strong>: Food insecurity remains a major challenge in Nigeria, assessing mineral and antinutritional qualities of Ceiba could ensure food security and improve people's diet.<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: The study assessed mineral and antinutritional qualities of succulent and matured leaves of two Ceiba accessions.<br><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: Succulent and matured leaves of Ceiba were collected from Ayede and Unosi in Kogi State, Nigeria and investigated for minerals and anti-nutrients using standard analytical procedures. The experiment was a 2x2 factorial in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. Data collected were subjected to the analysis of variance in CRD using GENSTAT statistical software.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Unosi accession significantly (p&lt;0.05) had higher potassium (42.9 mg/100g). Phosphorus (72.2mg/100g) and zinc (0.764 mg/100g) were more in Ayede. Matured leaves possessed higher calcium (21.22 mg/100g) and magnesium (62.81 mg/100g). Succulent leaves had more phosphorus (75.5 mg/100g). Genotype x traits biplot analysis revealed that matured leaves from Ayede had higher calcium. Iron, phosphorus and zinc were more in succulent leaves from Ayede. Matured leaves from Unosi had higher magnesium. Succulent leaves from Unosi contained higher potassium. Higher oxalate (172.5mg/100g) and phytate (3.90mg /100g) were attributed to matured leaves. Biplot analysis revealed that all the anti-nutrients were higher in matured leaves from Ayede.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Ayede accession is a better option for the consumers and for genetic improvement since the anti-nutrient content can be reduced during the cooking process. Higher anti-nutrients in matured leaves and higher mineral values in succulent leaves of Ceiba suggests the consumption of the succulent leaves.</p> K. Olajide G.I. Davidson K.P. Baiyeri Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 106 115 The Chemical Composition of Bambara Groundnut Flours at Different Fermentation Periods <p><strong>Background</strong>: The antinutrients composition in bambara groundnut has predisposed a lot of people to health risks. Therefore, the study to determine the effect of fermentation on the nutrient and antinutrient becomes pertinent.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed the chemical composition of flours from fermented bambara groundnut.<br><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: An experimental study design was used. The bambara groundnuts were fermented at different periods of twenty-four hours (BTF), fourty-eight hours (BFE), seventy-two hours (BST) and the unfermented portion coded zero (BZE) was used as the control. Proximate analysis was done and the mean, standard error of the mean (SEM) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were done using statistical package for service solutions (SPSS) version 21. Means were separated by Duncan's Multiple Range Test and significance judged at P &lt;0.05.<br><strong>Result</strong>: There were no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in the moisture content. The control (BZE) had the highest carbohydrate (69.63%), fat (1.63%) though not significantly different (P&gt;0.05) and a higher fibre content. Sample BFE had the highest protein value (21.82%) and ash (2.55mg) at a significant level (P&lt;0.05). Sample BST had the lowest fibre value (1.20%). For the minerals assessed, BFE had the highest values in calcium and iron while BTF (24hr) had the highest in magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc.<br>There was no significant difference in the vitamin C, thiamine and riboflavin values. The antinutrient values of BZE was significantly higher than all of the sample flours (P&lt;0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The result showed that fermented flours of bambara groundnut had increased nutrients and reduced antinutritional factors.</p> Chinyere P. Ezeibe Victoria U. Asumugha Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 116 123 Proximate, Mineral and Sensory Evaluation of Cake Baked from Wheat and Sesame Seed Flour Blends <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cake is one of the most common bakery products consumed in the world.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study determined the proximate, mineral and sensory attributes of cake from wheat and sesame seed flour blends.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Sesame seeds were processed into flour and formulated in the ratio 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 for wheat and sesame flour with 100% wheat flour ascontrol. The entire baking ingredients were mixed together thoroughly and the mixtures placed in baking pan and bakedin an electric oven for 20 min at a temperature of 160 °C.<br><strong>Results</strong>:Moisture content was in the range of (11.40% to 17.2%), ash content (1.51% to 2.32%), fat content (38.30% to 39.80%), fibrecontent (0.59% to 1.90%), protein (12.97% to 14.30%) and carbohydrate content (25.70% to 28.90%). Magnesium (26.55mg/100g to 29.07 mg/100g), calcium (14.55mg/100g to16.19mg/100g), sodium (10.67mg/100g to 14.11mg/100g), potassium (327mg/100g to 348mg/100g) and phosphorus (105mg/100g to 195mg/100g). Sensory attributes score varied across the samples. Colour (5.22% to 7.78%), taste (6.19% to 8.22%), texture (6.87% to 7.78%), flavor (7.08% to 8.34%) and overall acceptability (7.27% to 8.43%).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study showed thatinclusion of sesame seed flour in baking of cake significantly improves the nutritional composition of the cake with an acceptable sensory attribute.</p> A. B. Zubair F.A. Femi S.O. Azeez Y.M.O. Maxwell L. R. Isah M. J. Jiya J.O. Owheruo Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 124 129 Food Systems, Value Chains and Covid-19 Pandemic: a Review of Current Situation in Low and Middle Income Countries <p><strong>Background</strong>: The food value chain is very important in driving the economy of every country. It ensures food availability by deploying the science, technology and expertise needed for crop production, food processing, storage and distribution. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic no doubt had unprecedented short-and long-term impact on the food value chain. The literature is characterised by a gap on how to deal with the impact of COVID-19 outbreak especially in low- and middle-income countries.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This article reviewed the impact of the pandemic on selected food value chains such as staple cereals and livestock. Measures on how best to respond to the COVID-19 impact on food value chains, and the importance of developing the food value chains were discussed.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Systematic literature review highlights the abrupt impact of the pandemic on food value chains and reveals several challenges which include loss of earnings, restricted movements, panic buying, shift in eating patterns, depression and quarantines. The review also showed that within the supply chains, there was food availability at the onset of the outbreak but this depreciated over time due to panic buying and lockdown measures. Panic buying resulted in an increase in demand, upsurge in food prices and possibly, reduced purchase in the future, while unavailability of agricultural labour, transport delays and cancellations hampered food access.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Well organized and coordinated effort is required to establish long term measures that will contain the virus, recover the economy, as well as restore food production and access to food post pandemic.</p> Uzochukwu Anselm Onwuzuruike Ugochi Comfort Uzochukwu, Beulah Ortutu Olaide Ruth Aderibigbe Patricia Ogechi Ukegbu Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 130 135 The Effect of Ripening on the Nutrient Composition of Mature Locally Cultivated Pink Banana Cultivar (<i>Musa spp</i>) Peel and its Possible Uses <p><strong>Background</strong>: The stage of maturity of food plants greatly affects the concentrations of nutrients in them and lack of this information makes these plants to be highly underutilized.<br><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: Matured unripe pink banana cultivar were collected from Ussa, Ussa LGA, and divided into two portions.One portion was covered with jut bag and kept in the dark under room temperature to ripen. The peel of the other portion (unripe) were immediatetly removed, cut into pieces, dried at 50 C, milled into powder and stored under referigeration temperature (10 C). The peel of the ripe pink banana cultiver were processed as the unripe peel.The chemical composition of the powdered bananas peels (unripe andripe) were determined using standard methods.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The moisture, protein and carbohydrate content of the pink banana cultiver decreased from 8.82 to 7.83, 5.39 to 5.19 and 72.79%, respectively. While the ash, fats and fibre content increased from 4.66 to 5.34, 5.29 to 6.22 and 3.10 to 3.17%, respectively, on ripening.An increase in vitamin C (0.08 to 0.14mg/100g), vitamin E (92.0 to 113.10 mg/100g), and decrease in starch (1.13 to 0.92mg/100g) and lignin (5.22 to 5.11mg/100g)on ripening. The potassium and phosphorous content of the banana peels increased from 4.16 to 4.31 and 0.28 to 0.35mg/100g, repectively, on ripening.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Ripening has relatively improve the macronutrients and micronutrients of the unripe banana cultivar peels and could therefore be used in enrichment of food products.</p> J.A. Ayo A. Ochefu A. Agbatutu Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 136 144 The Effect of Blanching on the Nutrients and Anti-Nutritional Factors of the Leaves of Tender and Mature Bombax c. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Vegetables being the edible parts of herbaceous plant mostly consumed by man and animals have varying nutritional compositions. They provide rich sources of vitamins and minerals. In Nigeria most vegetables are eaten after processing which may be blanching or steaming.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of blanching on the nutrients and antinutritional factors of the leaves of tender and mature Bombax costatum.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: An experimental study design was adopted. The leaves of tender and mature Bombax costatum were analysed in raw and blanched forms using the methods described by AOAC [1]. The student's T-Test was used to statistically analyse the data.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results show that tender Bombax costatum had a high moisture content (72.60±0.50), (P0.05), which significantly increased with blanching (81.32±2.11). For tender Bombax costatum the blanching process led to a reduction in the fat (from 3.54±0.08 to 2.22±0.63), anti-nutritional factors and the vitamins as well as sodium, calcium, iron and phosphorus contents significantly (P0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Blanching led to a significant reduction in the sodium, calcium, iron and phosphorus contents of the tender Bombax costatum. The mature vegetables were found to be high in calcium contributing more than a 100% of RDA per 100g serving.</p> Ucheoma A. Asiegbu Judipat N. Obiora Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 145 151 Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extract of <i>Lawsonia Inermis</i> Leaf in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats (Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Aelil) <p><strong>Background</strong>: Alterations in metabolism of fuel molecules in diabetes increase blood glucose. This causes long-term complications in many organs. Currently, available treatment options to maintain glycemic control are accompanied by various side effects. Therefore, there is need to develop newer antihyperglycemic agents of plant origin with no side effects.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis leaf in diabetic rats.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty albino rats of an average weight 203.21 ± 6.57 g were randomly divided into six groups. Diabetes was induced through intraperitoneal administration of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan in all animal groups except one. Group A, non-diabetic rats, and group B, a diabetic control group were treated with 0.5 mL of normal saline while group C was treated with 50 mg/kg body weight metformin. Groups D, E and F were administered daily dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis leaf (AELIL) respectively for a period of 3 weeks. Parameters monitored are fasting blood glucose using glucometer, body weight, serum chemistry and liver enzyme markers.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Administration of AELIL showed a significant (p &lt; 0.05) reduction in fasting blood glucose of diabetic rats in a dose dependent manner. Also, administration of AELIL has no negative effect on the body weight, serum chemistry and liver marker enzymes of diabetic rats. The AELIL showed no observable toxicity.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: AELIL possesses antidiabetic activity and safe for consumption.</p> Amuzat Aliyu Olalekan Gomina Muftanatu Adisa Mohammed Jimoh Sulaiman Rukayyat S Mohammed Hadiza Yusuf Abubakar Awwal Ndatsu Yakubu Ntemere Godstime Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 152 160 Effect of Low Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load Mixed Meals on Postprandial Plasma Glucose in type 2 Diabetes Patients <p><strong>Background</strong>: Consumption of high glycaemic index (GI) and glyceamic load (GL) mixed meals may pose difficulties in diabetes Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT)<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the GI and GL of four mixed meals and their effect on the post prandial plasma glucose (PPPG) response in type 2 diabetes patients (T2DP).<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Hundred T2DP on MNT only attending University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) medical outpatient clinic were recruited. Control was made up of 100 non-diabetic healthy UNTH workers who consumed 50g glucose to determine GI and GL. The four test meals included: Maize meal porridge (Pap) and beans pudding (Moinmoin), Meat stew and boiled white rice and spaghetti with spinach (Rice and Spaghetti), Meat stew and boiled white rice and beans and spinach (Rice and Beans) and Meat and beans and yam pottage and spinach (Beans and Yam). Plasma glucose was tested quarter hourly for 2 hours for GI and GL values per serving determination.<br><strong>Results:</strong> At 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, three meals (i.e. Pap and Moinmoin, Rice and Beans and Beans and Yam) delivered lower GI, GL and decreased PPPG peaks compared to Rice and Spaghetti among non-diabetic and T2DP (P&lt;0.05). Beans and Yam had the lowest GI and GL value per serving (33.20±1.41 and 5.78±0.76) while Rice and Spaghetti had the highest values (49.60±3.63 and 11.49±0.31), respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Pap and Moinmoin, Rice and Beans and Beans and Yam delivered lower GI and GL and decreased PPPG in non-diabetic and T2DP and may provide healthy alternatives.</p> Ihuoma Mary Nnadi Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 161 170 Association Between Dietary Pattern And Severity Of Pain Crisis In Adolescents With Sickle Cell Anaemia Attending A Tertiary Health Facility In Northwestern Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited chronic disease with clinical manifestations arising from polymerization of haemoglobin leading to the deformity of red blood cells into a sickled shape.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the dietary pattern and severity of pain crisis in adolescents with sickle cell anaemia.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The study design was a cross-sectional survey. Fifty consenting participants with a diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia aged 10 to 19 years were enrolled in this study. Severity of pain crisis was evaluated using a modified Wong-Baker's Pain Scale. Food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain food consumption patterns. Data generated was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Cross tabulation and Chi-square were used to determine relationships between variables and statistical significance was established at p&lt;0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> All the participants were single with 54 % (n/50) female and 60 % (n/50) of them had at least secondary education. Mean age of participants was 14.3±2.8years. Adolescents who had no pain crisis were 28 % (n/N) while 42 % (n/N), 18 % (n/N) and 12 % (n/N), had mild, moderate and severe pain respectively. Dietary pattern consisted mostly of cereals, roots and tubers, milk and milk products consumed with vegetables being the least consumed. Roots and tubers, milk and milk products showed significant negative relationship with pain severity (p=0.025 and p=0.019 respectively) while meal skipping showed significant positive relationship with severity pain (p=0.034).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Poor dietary practices was associated with the severity of pain crisis of the adolescents living with SCA.</p> Ada Mercy Olorunfemi-Kayode Idowu Asegame Aimola Humphery Chukwuemeka Nzelibe Uche Samuel Ndidi Halima Bello-Manga Aisha Indo Mamman Copyright (c) 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 42 2 171 179 Glycemic Indices Of Pineapple, Banana, Jollof Rice And Wheat Flour Dough <p><strong>Background</strong>: Information on glycemic index of staple foods are required to develop appropriate nutrition education materials to promote informed food choices.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study was designed to determine the glycemic index of four Nigerian staple foods, namely pineapple, banana, jollof rice and wheat flour dough.<br><strong>Method</strong>: The study was descriptive cross-sectional in design. Ten apparently healthy postgraduate 2 students (4 males and 6 females, 25.8±2.0 years; BMI: 22.68±2.69 kg/m ; fasting blood sugar: 92.1±3.38 mg/dl) randomly consumed 50 g available carbohydrate portions of test foods and glucose<br>over a five-day period. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and half-hourly over a 2-h period post-ingestion of test and reference foods to determine plasma glucose concentrations, incremental area under the glucose curve, glycemic index and glycemic load.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A 50 g available carbohydrate is equivalent to 176 g of banana, 199 g of jollof rice, 229 g of wheat dough and 322 g of pineapple. The Incremental Area Under the Curve for jollof rice, wheat dough and pineapple showed no significant difference when compared with glucose, while of banana was significant at P&lt;0.05 when compared with glucose. The glycemic index was 94.88%, 97.37%, 98.9% and 99.3% and the corresponding glycemic load was 47.43%, 48.69%, 50.47% and 50.67%, for pineapple, wheat flour, jollof rice and banana, respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Banana, jollof rice, wheat flour dough and pineapple have high glycemic index values and post-prandial glucose response is similar for jollof rice, wheat flour and pineapple. Efforts should be intensified on promoting portion size control for improved glycemic response.</p> Okareh Okareh Titus Oladapo Oluwaseun Ariyo Ayomikun Rebecca Loto-Charles Copyright (c) 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 42 2 180 186 Proximate Composition, Heavy Metals and Microbial Quality of Ground Melon Seed Sold in Some Open Markets in Abeokuta, Ogun State <p><strong>Background:</strong> Processing, handling and distribution practices of ground melon seed normally sold along the street and open markets in Nigeria may constitute a major source of health hazard.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the variations in proximate composition, heavy metals and microbial quality of ground melon seed sold in some open markets in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Ground melon seed samples were collected from three vendors from five different major markets (Osiele, Itoku, Kuto, Omida and Lafenwa) in Ogun State, Nigeria. The samples were transported ascetically in polythene bags to the laboratory for further analysis. Unshelled melon seeds purchased from Osiele market was cleaned, shelled, washed with distilled water, sundried and milled using a laboratory blender. This served as control. The proximate composition, heavy metals (copper, lead, iron and cadmium) concentrations and microbial {total fungi count (TFC), total coliform count (TCC) and total viable count (TVC)} quality were determined by standard laboratory procedures.<br><strong>Results:</strong> There were significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in the proximate composition, heavy metal contents, TVC, TFC and TCC of all the samples. Sample from Omida market had the highest contents of all heavy metals except cadmium while the sample from Osiele market had the highest content of TVC, TCC and TFC.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Ground melon seed sold in all the markets were unsafe for human consumption due to its high microbial loads while the concentrations of heavy metals are comparable and within the acceptable limits of WHO/FAO CODEX food standard.</p> O. E. Kajihausa M. J. Bamidele A. T. Omidiran Copyright (c) 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 42 2 187 194