Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences <p>The Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences (ISSN 0189-0913), official Journal of the Nutrition Society of Nigeria, is a peer-reviewed publication and is published biannually, two volumes per year.</p>The primary focus of the journal is the publication of basic and applied studies in nutritional sciences and related fields. The following types of manuscripts are considered: original research articles, review articles, issues and opinions, special communications, letters to the Editor, book reviews, and proceedings of symposia. The journal is intended for a wide audience, including, nutritionists, dieticians, biochemists, health professionals, home economists, policy makers, students of nutrition and related fields, health educators, and all those in the health sciences. Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> Nutrition Society of Nigeria en-US Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences 0189-0913 <p>Manuscripts are accepted for publication with the understanding that no substantial part has been, or will be published elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright is transferred to the publisher if and when the articles, including reprints, photographic reproduction and translation are published. Copyright owner is the Nutrition Society of Nigeria. An abstract at the beginning of an article may be reproduced without specific permission provided the original citation is provided. Statements made and opinions expressed in letters to the editor, editorials, presidential address, book reviews, and other special articles appearing in this journal are views of the author(s) and do not necessary reflect the position of the journal or the Nutrition Society of Nigeria.</p> Baking and storage stability of vitamin a in retailed bread consumed in Lagos State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Level of vitamin A retention in bread baked with fortified flour at point of consumption might be compromised. Objective: This study determined baking and storage stability (BSS) of vitamin A in retailed bread as purchased and consumed.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A multi-stage stratified systematic random sampling technique was used to select preschoolers in 1,600 households in 5 out of 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Lagos. Fifteen samples of four 100% wheat flour brands (FBs) and 15 oven-fresh bread samples of three commonly consumed brands of bread were randomly selected from 12 purposively selected bakeries across the LGAs. The bread samples were stored for 5 days at room temperature. The retinol content of the flours and the oven-fresh, and 5-day (OF5D) stored bread samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The BSS of the bread samples, FBs and losses were calculated and data analysed using descriptive statistics and T- test at p &lt; 0.05.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean vitamin A contents of the flours, oven-fresh and OF5D stored bread were 17,403.8 IU/Kg; 7,571.6 IU/Kg and 1,460.6 IU/Kg, respectively. The mean BSS of bread samples were 25.2 vs. 4.9 % and 52.7 vs. 10.9 % with high range of vitamin A losses (39.2-100 %). Statistically significant (p &lt; 0.05) difference existed between vitamin A content of OF5D stored bread and the BSS of the flours. Also, differences existed between the baking and storage vitamin A losses in bread samples.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Vitamin A content and the BSS of the bread samples were low with high losses. Monitoring of compliance to recommended vitamin A value in fortified flour is important.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Vitamin A fortified flour, bread, baking and storage stability, Nigeria</p> Florence N. Uchendu Tola Atinmo Copyright (c) 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 40 2 1 10 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Nutrient composition and organoleptic evaluation of composite bread made from wheat and sweet potato flours <p><strong>Background:</strong> The FAO statistics demonstrate the importance of sweet potato in the areas where wheat production is disadvantaged due to climatic restraints. Utilization of sweet potato could mean reduction in importation of wheat in such places.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the nutrient and organoleptic profiles of composites and bread, respectively made from wheat (W) and sweet potato (SP) flours</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Sweet potato and wheat flour were procured from a local market in Enugu state. The sweet potato was washed, peeled, sliced into a bowl of water (to prevent browning), shade dried (48 hrs) and milled into flour. The sweet potato flour and wheat flour were blend in the ratios of 100:0, 50:50, 75:25, 25:75,0:100, respectively. The six flour samples were used to bake bread using the standard procedures, respectively. The bread samples were subjected to chemical analyses and sensory evaluation. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 20 and p &lt; 0.05 accepted as level of significance.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The protein of the 100% SP flour significantly (p &lt; 0.05) differed from the others the fat ranged from 0.47%in 100%SP to 5.75% in SP<sub>75</sub>W<sub>25</sub>, vitamin B<sub>1</sub>30.40mg in 100%SP to 127.25mg in 100%W while vitamin A was highest (306IU) in the SP50W50. The minerals were more in all the blends except for iron and zinc. The taste, texture, color, taste and general acceptability were highest in the 100%Wfollowed by the SP<sub>25</sub>W<sub>75</sub>.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study demonstrated the potential of sweet potato and wheat flours in the production of bread.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Composite, bread, wheat, sweet potato, flour</p> Ogechukwu P. Umeakuka Cyril O. Anoshirike Peace N. Ani Peace M. Ezeja Bernadette N. Eme Akachukwu K. Okolo Copyright (c) 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 40 2 11 15 10.4314/njns.v40i2. The influence of food fads and fallacies on food habit and consumption pattern of diabetic patients in Federal Medical Center Umuahia Abia State Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nutritionists, health professionals, and the public are concerned about the increasing number of misinformation on foods and nutrition available; such misinformation results in economic and nutritional exploitation of the public.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed the influence of food fads and fallacies on food habits and consumption pattern of diabetic patients in Federal Medical Center Umuahia, Abia State Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a cross sectional design. A convenient sampling technique was used to select the 30 respondents who visited the hospital for check up on the day of the survey. Questionnaire and interview were the instruments for data collection. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze food habits and consumption pattern, mean and standard deviation was used for food fads and fallacies while inferential statistics (point bi-serial correlation) was used to assess the influence of food fads and fallacies on food habits.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed that 53.3% of the respondents were males, 46.7%were females, 50.0% had secondary education and 46.7% were between ages 51-60 years. The main food fads and fallacies among diabetics identified included that semolina is better for diabetic patients (4.30±0.84) and eating bitter foods can cure diabetes (4.07±0.78). No significant relationship existed between meal skipping and food fads and fallacies.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Food fads and fallacies existed among diabetes patients as many of the fads and fallacies had means above the average of 3.00. Therefore, correct and authentic information concerning foods should be made available to all through multiple channels.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Food habit, fads, fallacies, diabetes and food</p> Ozioma Cecilia Azubuike Patricia Etuna Mbah Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 16 22 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Comparison of heavy metal content of selected vegetables grown with organic and inorganic fertilizers <p><strong>Background:</strong> Leafy vegetables are good sources of micronutrients but are also bio-accumulators of heavy metals. Objective: The study compared the heavy metal content of selected vegetables grown with organic and inorganic fertilizer in Odeda Local Government Area (LGA), Ogun State, Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> <em>Celosia argentea</em>, <em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> and <em>Corchorus olitorius</em> leaves were collected from four randomly selected farmlands. Soup recipes from a recipe book were standardized and used to prepare soups the samples. The vegetables and soups were analyzed in duplicate for lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Arsenic, Pb and Cd were not detected in both <em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> and <em>Corchorus olitorius</em> samples, Similarly, As, Pb, Cr were not detected in the <em>Celosia argentea</em> and its soup. The Ni and Zn in the <em>Corchorus olitorius</em> samples ranged from 0.03mg - 0.6mg/100g and 0.22mg - 0.44mg/100g, respectively. There was not significantly (P &gt; 0.05) different between the organic and inorganic and between the raw and cooked samples. The Ni in <em>Telfairia occidental</em>, ranged from 0.04mg - 0.06mg/100g, zinc from 0.34mg - 0.47mg/100g in both raw and soup samples. In <em>Celosia argentea</em>, Cd ranged from 0.09mg - 0.65mg/100g and was not significantly (P &gt; 0.05) different between the organic and inorganic and between the raw and the cooked samples. Heavy metal in the samples did not exceed FAO/WHO limit for vegetables.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The heavy metal content of the organically grown vegetables was not significantly different from the inorganically grown.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> heavy metals; vegetables; organic, inorganic and fertilizers</p> C.A. Oladoyinbo E.K. Ede O.O. Akinbule A.A. Sobo Y.M.O. Maxwell Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 23 29 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Nutritional status and eating patterns of preschool children in a community in south-west Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malnutrition, an important global health problem, affects large numbers of children in developing countries hence making child malnutrition a major concern in these regions. The body’s capability to utilize appropriately adequate nutrient intake –quality and quantity, in order to meet its metabolic needs of health and fitness describes the concept of nutritional status.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the nutritional status of preschool children and their eating patterns.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study design was a cross-sectional survey carried out in a semi-urban community in south-western Nigeria. The sample consisted of 220 preschool children. A pretested questionnaire was used to assess the eating patterns of the children. Anthropometric measurements were carried out to determine the nutritional status of the children. Data generated was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Cross tabulation and Chi square test were used to examine relationships between variables. Statistical significance was established at p &lt; 0.05.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The overall prevalence of malnutrition in this study was low with stunting, underweight and wasting recording 8.1%, 7.7% and 1.9%, respectively thereby making stunting the most common malnutrition indicator in the study area. A large proportion (78.2%) of the children ate more than three times daily while 96.4% of the children constantly had regular specified number of meals daily.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is imperative that parents promote healthy eating habits in their children. This would go a long way in improving the health outcome of the child.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nutritional status, eating pattern, preschool children, meal intake</p> Oyepeju Mary Onifade Kalu Jerffson Okorie Jesse Abiodun Otegbayo Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 30 37 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Chemicaland physicochemical compositions of yoghurts produced from blends of cow milk and pineapple juice <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Yoghurt is a fermented semi-liquid diary product known for its health benefits and functional properties; It however lacks some phytochemical which when present could enhance its functionalities.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study determined the nutrient and physicochemical of yoghurts produced with cow milk and pineapple juice blends.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cow milk powder (100, 90, 70, 50 and 30g) reconstituted with 900mls of potable water each was mixed with graded levels (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 ml, respectively) of pineapple juice. Using standard method, a mixture of <em>L. bulgaricus</em> and<em> S. thermophilus</em> was incorporated into each reconstituted sample to produce yoghurt. The chemical composition of the yoghurt samples was determined in duplicate using the AOAC methods. The data generated were analysed using Statistical product for service solution version 20, means were separated and compared with Duncan multiple range test and Analysis of Variance, respectively.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Moisture (79.6-87.4%), β-carotene (20.6-48-7μg), thiamin (2.10-3.92mg), riboflavin (0.65-1.02mg) and ascorbic acid (128.9-150.7mg) values were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher in the cow milk and pineapple juice yoghurt blends, while protein (3.9%), fat (4.0%), crude fibre (0.40%), Ca (124 mg), Mg (142.1mg), P (164.6mg), Na (68.5mg) and K (54.7mg) were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher in the 100% cow milk yoghurt. The titratable acidity increased with decease in pH of the products.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Proximate (except for moisture) and mineral contents decreased with increase in the proportion of pineapple juice added while the reverse was the case for vitamins and phytochemicals. Incorporating pineapple juice in yoghurt could enhance vitamin and phytochemical intakes of individuals.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Yogurt, nutrient, enrichment, pineapple juice, phytochemicals</p> H.O. Okudu V.U. Okolie Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 38 42 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Feeding methods and anthropometric indices of peri urban Nigerian infants: results of a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> The impact of inappropriate infant feeding practices on nutritional status and subsequent poor growth and development of the child with elevated risk of developing non-communicable diseases later in life cannot be overemphasized.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> This cross-sectional baseline study evaluated the infant feeding methods of mother within the first 6 months and anthropometric indices of infants in peri urban community of Enugu state, Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study design was adopted; 8 hospitals out of 65 and 600 mother-child pairs were selected using multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire which elicited background information, knowledge and practice of breastfeeding, attitude towards exclusive breastfeeding and feeding methods of infants within the first 6 months; the infants hospital records and anthropometry were used to collect data. The weight and length of infants were used to derive anthropometric indices which were compared with the standard. Descriptive analysis was done using SPSS, version 21 and ANOVA used to compare the means at p &lt; 0.05 level of significance.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> About 54% of the respondents, initiated breastfeeding after 30 minutes but within 24 hours of delivery, 50.7% practiced exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) while 16.0% formula fed and 42.5% gave water. Some (21.5%) of the breastfed infants were stunted, also were 13.1% and 28.1% formula fed infants and mixed fed infants, respectively. Forty-eight percent of the EBF infants were wasted while 11.5% and 14.6% of the formula and mixed fed counterparts were obese and overweight, respectively.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed prevalence of stunting, wasting, obesity and overweight among the children. These could be attributed to poor infant feeding practices and could be alleviated through behavoural change communication of the mothers.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Feeding practices, anthropometric indices, infants</p> C.V. Anidi N.B. Eme V.N. Ibeanu P.N. Ani C.O. Anoshirike C.C. Onuoha Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 43 49 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Effect of germination and boiling on the phytochemical content of four Nigerian pulses <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nutritionally, pulses are good sources of protein, fibre, antioxidants, rich in iron, potassium and are excellent sources of folate. Bioavailability of micronutrients in plant-based diets to a greater extent could depend on pre-treatment.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Four Nigerian pulses namely cowpea, pigeon peas, lima beans and adzuki beans were obtained in north south and south-south zones of Nigeria. The pulses were pretreated (germinated and boiled) and the effects of the pretreatment on the phytochemical were assessed using standard methods.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Germination significantly decreased the phytate content of the lima beans (22.25 to 13.18 and 9.40 to 9.2018mg/100g), lima and adzuki bean (24.72 to 23.07 and 13.00 to 2.30mg/100g). Germination increased the phenol content of the Cowpea (0.73 to 0.85mg/100g), pigeon pea (0.82 to 0.87mg/100g), lima beans (0.57 to 0.6718mg/100g) and adzuki beans (0.72 - 0.81mg/100g). However, none of the observed differences were statistically significant (p &lt; 0.05). Only the phytate and saponin content of cowpea (22.25 - 8.24 and 9.40 to 3.20 and adzuki beans (24.72 - 14.01 and 13.00 to 10.10mg/100g). and the phytate content of pigeon peas and lima beans (14.83 to 12.36 and 13.76 to 6.59mg/100g) were significantly decreased (p &lt; 0.05) by boiling.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Boiling is the most effective in reducing the concentration level of phytate, phenol and saponin content in cowpea, pigeon pea, lima beans and adzuki beans.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Effect, germination, boiling, Nigerian pulses, flours</p> J.A. Ayo A Agbatutu D.N. Onoche Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 50 55 10.4314/njns.v40i2. What are the perceptions of caregivers regarding the outcome of children discharged from the community-based programme in Jigawa, Nigeria? <p><strong>Background:</strong> Studies have shown that there is an increased burden of severe acute malnutrition, especially in northern Nigeria. Poor infant and child feeding practices, and poverty were among the known factors responsible for this. Through the community management outpatient therapeutic programme, affected children are screened, managed and discharged. However, few studies have been conducted in Nigeria to explore the outcomes at six months post- discharge.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study explored the perceptions of caregivers post six months discharge from a community-based programme in Jigawa, northern Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a qualitative study involving parents of children who had both good and bad outcomes following a community-based programme in two local government areas of Jigawa. Participants were purposively selected and focus group discussions were conducted, following informed consent. Data was analysed using the thematic framework approach and Nvivo software, version 11.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Poverty, gender and culture shaped the perceptions of outcomes among the caregivers. Mothers with good outcomes had more support from their spouses, especially with permissions granted to seek care. Other factors such as distance to care facility, sociocultural beliefs as well as the practice of seeking alternative care were common to both groups. The counselling received through the programme positively affected the caregivers.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Seasonality associated with food availability was a significant contributor to children's outcome, but with underlying poverty, gender inequalities and cultural practices. Behavioural change communication is vital to improving the outcomes.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Perceptions, severe acute malnutrition, caregivers</p> Luret Albert Lar Collins John Ruth Adah Esther Awazzi Envuladu Halima Abdu Idris Adedeji Kazeem Lasisi Zuwaira Ibrahim Hassan Udochukwu Diala Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 56 64 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Assessment of chemical and organoleptic properties of fortified indigenous maize-based snack <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Aadun</em> is an indigenous maize-based snack high in energy, phosphorus and magnesium but low in protein. It is often sold with minimal packaging under conditions which may lead to its rapid deterioration. Protein fortification and improved packaging could enhance its balance of nutrients and increase acceptability.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study evaluated the chemical composition and organoleptic qualities of fortified <em>aadun</em>.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Four different samples of aadun were prepared. T<sub>0</sub> served as the control (unfortified <em>aadun)</em> while the three others (T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>) were fortified with groundnut, crayfish and soybeans, respectively. The four samples were subjected to proximate and mineral analysis. Different packaging materials such as foil paper, polyethylene and plastic plate covered with kiln film were used to present the samples to 50 panellists for organoleptic assessment. Results were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA using SPSS version 20.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Fortified samples were found to be significantly different in their chemical composition and sensory attributes from the control sample. The fortified aadun samples had higher protein, crude fibre, ether extract, iron, magnesium, iodine, sodium, potassium and phosphorus than the control. The T<sub>0</sub> was rated highest for the colour and the T<sub>1</sub> for taste, texture, aroma and overall acceptability. The most preferred packaging material for the samples was plastic plate covered with kiln film while polyethylene was least preferred.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Fortifying <em>aadun</em> with different ingredients especially groundnut and improving the materials used in packaging will improve its consumer acceptability.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fortified <em>aadun</em>, organoleptic, chemical composition, packaging</p> O.C. Apata O.J. Oyebade O.O. Ajayi I.N. Adebayo N.T. Meludu I.A. Ayodele Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 65 70 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Anthropometric indices and factors affecting dietary practices of diabetics attending Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Southwest, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nutritional care is an important part of the overall medical management of patients with diabetes which plays a key role in the improvement, prevention and control of blood glucose level.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed the dietary practices, and anthropometric status of type 2 diabetics attending Federal Medical Centre Owo.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A random sampling method was used to select 70 respondents whose socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and factors affecting dietary practices were obtained via structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI), and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR). Descriptive and inferential statistics were analysed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Significance was accepted at p &lt; 0.05.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 35.7% of the respondents were in-patients while 64.3% were out-patients. More than half (60%) of the male respondents were diabetics. The feeding frequency per day for majority (54.3%) of the respondents (in- patients and out-patients) was three times; breakfast and lunch were consumed by 34.3% and 45.7%, respectively. Fruits and vegetables were mostly consumed in-between meal, 36.1% and 30%, respectively. Only 17.1% of the respondents skipped breakfast. More than half (61.4%) forgot to plan their meal, 41.4% missed the previous day diet planning, 68.6% forgot to comply to diet regimen while 62.9% stopped diet plan. A total of 45.7% and 7.1% of the participants were overweight and obese, respectively.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> To improve nutritional care in hospitals, effective nutrition training and continuing education for all staff involved in nutritional care of patients must be prioritized.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diabetes care, dietary practices, anthropometry, meal skipping</p> A.A. Oladapo O.I. Olanrewaju T.S. Ande Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 71 78 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among the staff (25-70 years) of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka Campus <p><strong>Background:</strong> The upsurge of overweight and obesity among adult workforce has become an epidemic and public health concern globally, contributing to low productivity, high medical cost and increase risk of non-communicable diseases and death.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the staff of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka Campus.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study adopted a cross sectional study design. A total of 1470 academic and non- academic staff of the university aged 25–70 years were randomly selected through a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire which elicited information on the socio-demographic and dietary pattern. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and used to derive indices (body mass index and waist/hip ratio) which were compared with the WHO reference standard for age. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 and presented as descriptive statistics. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationships, with a significant level set at p &lt; 0.05.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Majority (85.4%) of the respondents skipped meals especially breakfast (55.0%), 44.6% and 40.9% skipped meal due to time constraint and not been hungry, respectively. Less than half (43.1%) exercised, 37% (35.1% of academic and 38.4% of non-academic staff) were overweight, 6.7% (6.6% of academic and 6.7% of non-academic) were obese and 21.4% males and 100.0% females were at risk of cardiovascular diseases.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study revealed poor dietary and lifestyle pattern, high prevalence of overweight and obesity, risk of cardiovascular diseases among the staff of the University of Nigeria Nsukka, Campus.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Overweight, obesity and university staff</p> Cyril O. Anoshirike Bernadette N. Eme Vivienne N. Ibeanu V. Uzodinma Makuochi Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 79 83 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Iron and vitamin C rich foods intake of lactating mothers whose staples are roots and tubers <p><strong>Background:</strong> In many communities in Nigeria, culture and gender-based intra food distribution in households increase the risk of micronutrient deficiency among women irrespective of their physiological state.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study evaluated the consumption pattern of iron and vitamin C rich foods of lactating mothers whose staple foods are roots and tubers</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate consumption pattern of iron and vitamin C rich foods intake of 587lactating mothers whose staple foods were roots and tubers. The consenting mothers were selected from 12 out of the 23 primary health centres a community in Enugu state, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information mothers infant breastfeeding practices, consumption pattern of iron and vitamin C rich foods and factors influencing choice for selection of foods. Data collected were analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 22.0 and presented as frequencies, means and percentages.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> As many as 41.9% and 37.9% advanced wrong combinations of foods as sources of iron and vitamin A, respectively. About 49% ate meat/product occasionally, 23.6% and 20.4% consumed fluted pumpkin and tomatoes daily, respectively. There was a significant (p &lt; 0.02) relationship between the consumption pattern of vitamin C rich foods and iron rich foods.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Intake of iron and vitamin C rich foods was observed to be low in this study. Women empowerment and nutrition education with emphasis on dietary diversity should be incorporated in the antenatal programme.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Lactating women, vitamin C, iron, intake, roots and tubers</p> Ngozi B. Eme Ogechukwu P. Umeakuka Vivienne N. Ibeanu Peace N. Ani M. Ezeja Peace Cyril O. Anoshirike Uju M. Onuorah Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 84 93 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Prevalence of stunted child overweight mother pair in some communities south-east Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria is on the rise coupled with the increase in the number of children under the age of five years who are stunted due to malnutrition.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study examined the co-existence of a stunted child and overweight mother (SCOWTM) in the same household in some communities in south-east Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted in selection of 1187 women of reproductive age (18 to 49 years) who had children 6-59 months of age. Weight and height measurements were conducted for mothers and their children. Stunting was defined as height-for-age at &lt;-2 SD, wasting as weight-for-height at &lt;-2SD, and underweight as weight-for-age at &lt;-2SD of reference population while maternal overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index &gt;25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS, version 16. Significant level was determined at p &lt; 0.05</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Overweight mothers were 61.8%. The mean age, height and weight of children were 18.9±6.2 months, 70.1 ±17.8 cm, weight 9.5±4.7kg, respectively. Prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight among the children were 11.9%, 34.9% and 10.8%, respectively. The prevalence of SCOWTM pair was 11.29%. The urban areas had 15.2% prevalence while the rural had 10.0% but the difference was not significant (P &gt; 0.05).</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was high prevalence of the coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight in the same household in the study area. Further studies are needed to understand the causes and to develop intervention strategies.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Body weight, mothers, overweight, stunting, children</p> Gertrude Nneka Onyeji Rasaki Ajani Sanusi Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 94 98 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Terpene profile of dietary herbs (<i>Alstonia boonei</i>, <i>Securidaca longepedunculata</i> and <i>Uvaria chamae</i>) from south-eastern Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tarpenes are phytochemicals found in plants especially cannabis. They are sometimes called terpenoids which are the primary constituents of the essential oil. Terpenes are used in cosmetics, perfumes production, traditional medicines and as a food additive to improve aroma. Vitamin A is a form of terpene.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study determined the terpene profile of dietary herbs (<em>Alstonia boonei</em>, <em>Securidaca longepedunculata</em> and <em>Uvaria chamae</em>) from South-eastern Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> <em>Alstonia boonei</em> stem bark,<em> Securidaca longepedunculata</em> roots and Uvaria chamae roots were obtained from the forest at Akama in Orsu Local government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The samples were washed and air dried for 2 weeks at 26oC, oven dried in air hot cabinet oven at of 60O for 30 minutes. The dried materials were ground to powder with Marlex electroline grinder. Obtained powder was analyzed for the presence of terpene content using full evaporation technique (FET) headspace gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) method. This analysis was performed by Anresco laboratories, San Francisco, CA, United State of America. The percentage content of the terpenes was reported in Tables.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed presence of terpenes in unquantifiable amounts in bark of <em>Alstonia booneii</em> stem, presence of only α–bisabolol in quantifiable amount in roots of <em>Securidaca longepedunculata</em> and α-pinene, α–humelene, menthol, camphene, β–myrcene, d 3-carene, p-cymene and isopulegol in <em>Uvaria chamae</em> roots.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The terpene levels of the herbs compared to the levels in cannabis were low.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Uvaria chamae</em>, <em>Alstonia boonei</em>, <em>Securidaca longepedunculata</em>, <em>terpenes</em></p> A.A. Obiloma W.C. Madu G.O. Osuji P.C. Ogbonna A.N. Maduforo Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 99 106 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Glycaemic responses of some varieties of cocoyam in Nigeria using normo-glycaemic subjects <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cocoyam is part of the meal in dietary management of type 2 diabetes. However, information on glycaemic responses of normo-glycaemic subjects to some cocoyam varieties are limited.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study determined the postprandial glycaemic responses of normo-glycaemic subjects to four different varieties of cocoyam.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> The cocoyam varieties used were <em>Xanthosoma sagittifolium</em>, <em>Xanthosoma atrovirens</em>, <em>Colocasia esculenta</em>, and<em> Colocasia</em> spp. The samples were prepared and cooked, with salt, until softened and proximate composition then determined. The glycaemic index (GI) of each sample was determined. The amounts that would deliver 50g glycaemic carbohydrates and glucose solution (50g in 300ml potable water 25<sup>0</sup>C, 1:6w/v) were served to 9 normo-glycaemic subjects after an over-night fast. Their glycaemic responses were checked at 0 (base-line), 30, 60, 90 and 120 minute. Analysis of variance was used to separate the mean.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The total carbohydrate of <em>ede uhie</em> (73.10g100<sup>-g</sup>) and <em>ede okoriko</em> (72.76g100<sup>-g</sup>) were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) different from <em>cocondia</em> (63.51g100<sup>-g</sup>) and <em>ede anambe</em> (61.80g 100<sup>-g</sup>); <em>edeanambe</em> (5.46g100<sup>-g</sup>) had significantly different crude fibre from the other samples. <em>Ede uhie</em> had the highest energy value (349.53 Kcal); whereas cocondia had the highest (7.96g 100<sup>-g</sup>) protein. Mean glucose responses of the subjects ranged from 70.8-92.2mg<sup>–dl</sup> (baseline) to 65-85.2mg<sup>–dl</sup>. The GI was intermediate (45-55) for <em>ede uhie</em> (47) and <em>cocondia</em> (52) whereas <em>ede anambe</em> (21) and <em>ede okoriko</em> (22) had very low GI (21-22).</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Ede anambe</em> had the least GI. It should form a greater part of the meal used in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cocoyam varieties, glycaemic index, postprandial glucose</p> Alphonsus U.C Ukozor Felicia C. Okwulehie Gladys A. Achinihu Cynthia A. Mbah Elizabeth O. Olubiyi, Happiness C. Opara Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 107 114 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Dietary patterns and prevalence of overweight and obesity among female undergraduate students of university of Nigeria, Nsukka <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adolescents/young adults are prone to overweight and obesity while transiting from to adulthood.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study investigated the dietary patterns and prevalence of overweight and obesity among female undergraduates in University of Nigeria, Nsukka.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study employed a cross sectional survey design. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 656 participants. Instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The height and weight measurements of the respondents were used to determine their body mass index. Data collected were analyzed using the computer software package Statistical Product for Service Solution version 22. Descriptive statistics were carried out on the data collected.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The respondents were aged 16 – 29years and had low intake of fruits and vegetables, legumes, meat and fish and high consumption of high calorie dense foods. Majority (75%) of the respondents skipped meals mostly due to time constraint (51.4%) and lack of food and money (20.7%). Up to25.6% of the respondents were overweight, and 10.1% were obese. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher (40.4%) among the 16 – 19years than in the 20 - 29years (33.4%).</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Respondents’ high consumption of high calorie foods led to high prevalence of overweight /obesity among them. Universities and other institutions of higher learning should initiate health and nutrition education programmes to help students appreciate the importance of healthy dietary pattern and achieve good health and normal body mass index.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dietary patterns, overweight, obesity, undergraduates</p> S.N. Eze R.C. Iheanacho G.N. Onyeke R.I. Edeh Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 115 119 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Combating childhood multinutrient undernutrition and its inequalities in Nigeria: Whitehead’s typology as a policy framework for urgent action <p>Malnutrition is a global public health issue. Multinutrient deficiency is more rampant in developing countries like Nigeria, affecting mainly children and pregnant women. Direct causes are reduced intake due to shortage, and infections which reduce intake/absorption or increase body demand. Underlying causes include poverty, illiteracy, food insecurity, and poor environmental sanitation. Multinutrient deficiency is a threat to any country’s growth and development because it is a major cause of child morbidity and mortality. It disrupts growth and development of organs such as the brain leading to cognitive impairment, chronic diseases in adult life, and reduced productivity. The Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2016-17 revealed high proportions of multinutrient deficiency with regional, rural/urban, and socioeconomic inequalities. Cultural practices such as food taboos and differential allocation of food in the family, sociopolitical instability, and lack of political will have contributed to this scourge, though more data in terms of the relative strengths of these factors are needed to prioritize interventions. In any case, interventions must address the four levels of social determinants of health namely individual lifestyle factors (health education, social protection of vulnerable households, and protection of children from infections), social and community networks (setting up community linkages that support individuals in health and finance), living conditions (provision of adequate water and sanitation, essential health services, and education which safeguard nutritional level), and general socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions (equitable income distribution, structural linkages for healthy public policy, and developmental interventions in rural and poor communities).</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Childhood undernutrition, Nigeria, inequalities, whitehead’s typology, policy</p> Nnamdi Stephen Moeteke Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 120 126 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Quality assessment of palm oil sold in major markets in Abia North, Abia State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Quality assessment of oil is a fundamental parameter for having and maintaining high quality standards.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed the quality of palm oil sold in major market in Abia north senatorial zone, Nigeria.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Three out of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) were randomly selected in Abia north. Fifteen samples were selected from one major market purposefully selected from each LGA. Sensory properties of the oil were used to group the 45 samples into 3 (good, average and bad oil) before the physicochemical analysis. Data was collected with questionnaire and physicochemical (anisidine value (AV), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI) and beta carotene level) evaluation using standard methods. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and significance was accepted at p ≤ 0.05.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 45 respondents, 67% produced their oil themselves, while 33% purchased, 37% and 60% kept palm fruits for less than 10 and 10-20 days, respectively before processing. The FFA values ranged from 7.16-8.08%, PV 15.67-40.33meqO2/kg, AV 26.00-41.33, DOBI 0.12-0.26 while beta carotene was 1333.33 - 4443.3mg/kg. For the FFA, PV, DOBI AND AV, the good oil had the lowest values, the bad the highest while the average quality was consistently in between. The opposite was however the case for beta carotene values. The FFA, PV, AV and DOBI values of the samples exceeded the standard values.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Palm oil from Abia north senatorial Zone is of low quality and therefore not very good for human consumption.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Abia State, palm oil, Nigeria, quality assessment, major markets</p> G.I. Davidson C Edeh Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 127 134 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of two traditional soups used by malaria patients and post partum mothers in Owo, Ondo State <p><strong>Background:</strong> Indigenous tribes in Nigeria have been using herbal mixture such as soups for therapeutic purpose with limited knowledge on their nutrients and phytochemical components.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> The nutrients and phytochemicals composition of two soups consumed by postpartum mothers and malaria patients in Owo were investigated.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Ingredients such as cotton seed, beef, fish, black pepper, calabash nutmeg, turmeric, scent leaf, garlic, palm oil, back of mahogany tree and octomeles<em> sumatrana</em> 'erima' seed were procured, processed and prepared according to local methods into two samples of soups. The ingredients for the cotton seed soup and scent leaf soup samples were similar except for sample cotton seed soup that contain, back of mahogany tree and cotton seeds. One hundred grammes of each soup samples were subjected to proximate, phytochemical and instrumental analyses (AAS for minerals and Vitamins with Gc-HP 6890 powered with HP chemstation Rev. A09.01 (1206) software. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation were used to analyze data generated and t-test was used in Separation of means</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Findings showed that the protein content was significantly (P&gt;0.05) higher in Scent leaf soup (21.85%) than in cotton seed soup (20.63%). No significant difference was observed in the minerals composition of the soups except for iron content of cotton seed soup (23.75mg/100g) that was significantly higher (P&gt;0.05) than that of sent leaf soup (20.85mg/100g). There were significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in the values of vitamin C (14.85 vs 3.04mg/100g), vitamin E (5.72 vs 8.72mg/100g), and vitamin B1 (8.61 vs 9.72mg/100g) of cotton seed and sent leaf soups. Phytate (8.24%) and alkaloid (1.61%) were significantly higher in scent leaf and cotton seed soup respectively.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The high nutrients diversity and phytochemicals in the two soups might be responsible for their therapeutic effect on postpartum mothers and malaria treatment.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Traditional soups, Nutrients Composition, Postpartum, Malaria</p> R.A. Mustapha A.A. Oladapo O.I. Olanrewaju A.P. Oluwagunwa M.A. Roland-Ayodele D.B. Ogunmuyide O.T. Anthony Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 135 141 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Effects of <i>Sorghum bicolor</i>, <i>Carica papaya</i> and <i>Hibiscus sabdariffa</i> leaves extracts on some haematological indices of cyclophosphamide-induced anaemic albino rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Medicinal plants and herbs are one of the crucial components as far as the contribution of biodiversity to society is concerned Objective: The Effects of <em>Sorghum bicolor</em>, <em>Carica papaya</em> and <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> leaves extracts on some of Cyclophosphamide-Induced anaemic Albino rats were investigated.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Aqueous extracts of 500 g of each of the pulverized leaves was obtained. Forty non-drug treatment adult male albino rats were randomly allotted to 8 groups of five rats each based on body weight with differences in weight did not exceeding 5g. Anaemia was induced in the rats using cyclophosphamide and 2ml of the blood sample was collected from the retro-bulba plexus of the median canthus of the eye of the rat for biochemical analysis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Duncan Studentised New Multiple Range Test were used to separate and compare means. The differences in means were considered significant at 5% probability.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The group treated with 400mg/kg body weight <em>Carica papaya</em> had the highest (106.43%) increase in packed cell volume and 88.70% haemoglobin concentration. The group treated with 800mg/kg body weight <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> had the highest (107.24%) increase in red blood cell count. There was moderate decrease in the white blood cell (WBC) count of the rats. The group treated with 400mg/kg body weight <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> had the highest decrease (41.77%) in WBC. Dosage of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000mg of the extracts had no fatal effect on the rats.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The Sorghum bicolor,<em> Carica papaya</em> and <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> leaf extracts would be beneficial in boosting blood volume and presents alternative to high cost management of nutritional anaemia.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Sorghum bicolor</em>, <em>Carica papaya</em>, <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em>, anaemia</p> P.A. Ayodeji U.S. Onoja O.I. Olanrewaju T.A. Aniebiet Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 142 151 10.4314/njns.v40i2. Contribution of dietary pattern and family history to hypertension among adults in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is a disorder of the heart and blood vessels which increases the risk of other cardiovascular diseases including heart attack and stroke which responsible for many deaths around the world.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the contribution of dietary pattern and family history to hypertension among adults in Abeokuta, Ogun State.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total number 300 respondents who gave their consent were recruited into the study. A pre-tested semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire which covered questions on demographic characteristics, dietary pattern, family history of hypertension and diabetes was used for data collection. The blood pressure (mmHg) of respondents was also assessed using standard procedures. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: More than half (59.0%) of the respondents had post-secondary school education and 65% earned more than 40,000 naira per month. Only 6.7% consumed fruits daily and 80.7% ate less than 4 servings of fruit and vegetables per week. Family history of hypertension and diabetes was reported in 17.3% and 10.7% of the respondents, respectively while 28.9% were hypertensive. Dietary pattern had no statistically significant contribution except for salt that slightly contributed to hypertension and this was statistically significant (p = 0.015). However, family history of hypertension and diabetes significantly contributed 19.4% and 8.9%, respectively to hypertension in this study.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was no association between dietary pattern of the respondents and hypertension but excessive salt intake, family history of hypertension and diabetes contributed to hypertension in this study.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypertension, dietary pattern, family history, fruits</p> O.O. Bolajoko A.S. Adesanwo Y.O. Akinhanmi Copyright (c) 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 40 2 152 159 10.4314/njns.v40i2.