Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences <p>The Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences (ISSN 0189-0913), official Journal of the Nutrition Society of Nigeria, is a peer-reviewed publication and is published biannually, two volumes per year.</p> <p>The primary focus of the journal is the publication of basic and applied studies in nutritional sciences and related fields. The following types of manuscripts are considered: original research articles, review articles, issues and opinions, special communications, letters to the Editor, book reviews, and proceedings of symposia. The journal is intended for a wide audience, including, nutritionists, dieticians, biochemists, health professionals, home economists, policy makers, students of nutrition and related fields, health educators, and all those in the health sciences. Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US <p>Manuscripts are accepted for publication with the understanding that no substantial part has been, or will be published elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright is transferred to the publisher if and when the articles, including reprints, photographic reproduction and translation are published. Copyright owner is the Nutrition Society of Nigeria. An abstract at the beginning of an article may be reproduced without specific permission provided the original citation is provided. Statements made and opinions expressed in letters to the editor, editorials, presidential address, book reviews, and other special articles appearing in this journal are views of the author(s) and do not necessary reflect the position of the journal or the Nutrition Society of Nigeria.</p> (Dr. Folake Samuel) (Nutrition Society of Nigeria) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 13:12:58 +0000 OJS 60 Proximate and Amino Acid Compositions of Commonly Consumed Native Soups among Nupe People of Niger State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Soups usually accompany major Nigerian staple foods (swallow) and it is very essential to Nigerian food recipes.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aims at evaluating the proximate and amino acid compositions of commonly consumed native soups among Nupe people of Niger state, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross sectional survey was conducted to document the commonly consumed native soups among Nupe people residing in Bida and Lavun Local Government Areas of Niger state using stratified sampling method. The ingredients for the recipes of six (6)&nbsp; commonly consumed soups were standardized in the laboratory, prepared and evaluated for some nutrient contents using standard&nbsp; procedures for proximate and amino acids analyses.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The result shows that ash content of the soups ranged from 1.90±0.37 to 3.46±0.61 g/100g, crude fat content was from&nbsp; 8.17±0.28 to 16.49±1.95 g/100g, and the protein contents was between 4.43±0.59 to 7.81±1.23 g/100g. The carbohydrate ranged from 1.5±0.80 – 15.30±2.58 g/100g and the estimated energy value for the soups was between 109.35±2.21 – 188.97±14.74 kcal. Level of leucine ranged from 6.05±0.19 – 8.01±0.09 g/100g, lysine (3.44±0.06 – 7.05±0.06 g/100g), isoleucine (3.60±0.08 – 4.37±0.04 g/100g), and threonine ranged from 3.03±0.11 to 3.90±0.03 g/100g.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The consumption of these soups could help contribute to daily nutrient intake and prevent protein deficiency related diseases in the people.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Amino Acids, Native Soup, Nutrient, Vegetable and Protein </p> A. Uthman, K.M. Anigo, S.E Atawodi, A. Musa, A. Abdulazeez Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of School-Meal Nutrient Composition and Anthropometry Measurements of Children in Public Primary Schools Operating School-Feeding Programme in Osun State <p><strong>Background</strong>: The objectives of the study were to evaluate nutrient composition and contribution of the school meals to the children daily nutrient requirements<br><strong>Objective:</strong><br><strong>Methods:</strong> Cross-sectional study was conducted among school-children in Osun State Nigeria. Data on socio-demographic variables, household food security and dietary patterns of the children were collected using questionnaires. Height-for-age and body mass index-for-age z-score of the children were determined. The school-meal samples were evaluated for chemical composition, and percentage<br>contributions of the school-meal to the daily nutrient requirements of the children were determined.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Household food consumption patterns of the children indicated that 83% depend on starchbased foods, while 72.2% depend on legumes as the main source of protein intakes. For the fruits/vegetables, 71% agreed on regular intakes, while others did not. The protein and energy intakes from the school-meal were 27.12 g/day and 594.05 kcal/day, respectively; and these contributed between 79.78 - 142.76% and 33.0 - 49.5% of the children daily nutrient requirements. The prevalence of underweight and stunting in female children (22.6%, 29.4%) were higher than in male counterparts (21.4%, 28.4%).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The school-meals contributed positively to the daily protein and energy requirements of the children. However, prevalence of underweight and stunting was noticed among the schoolchildren. Hence, there is a need to improve on the quantity and quality of the school-meals. This finding may be relevant to health and educational policy makers in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Household food insecurity, School-meal programme, Nutrient composition, Prevalence of malnutrition, School children </p> O.S. Ijarotimi, A. Ibrahim Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Health Risks Associated with Consumption of Fast Foods: Perspectives of Traders in Kano, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Consumption of fast foods is increasing globally and may be linked to significant public health problems associated with both communicable and non-communicable diseases.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed knowledge and perception of potential health risk of fast food consumption among traders in Kano, and identified the commonly vended foods and drinks in Kano.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to study 390 selected traders using a two staged sampling technique. Data was collected using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean± SD age of the traders was 39±12.5 years with a range of 18-68 years. Most of the traders (88.6%) were greater than 24 years of age, majority were males (90.5%) with (97.6%) having formal education. About three-quarter (77.5%) had adequate knowledge of health risk, while (77.3%) had wrong perception. Commonly vended foods were fried chicken and red meat among&nbsp; others. Marital status {AOR=0.6, 95% CI= (0.2-1.5)} and duration in business {AOR=4.4, 95% CI= (2.3-8.4)} were independent predictors of knowledge, while tribe {AOR=2.4, 95% CI= (1.5-3.9)} was found to be an independent predictor of perception of health risk associated with fast food consumption among the traders.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Traders had adequate knowledge of health risk but wrong perception on the health implication of fast food consumption. Government should put in place policies and enforcements that will ensure sustained education of traders on the health risk of fast food consumption.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Knowledge, perception, fast food, health risk</p> Usman Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Lawan Umar, Auwal Umar Gajida, Rabiu Ibrahim Jalo, Odingboro Suleman Onimisi, Zahrau Zubairu , Fatelyn Okakah, Khadijah Nuhu Nasidi Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Blood Pressure Patterns, Stress Assessment and Anthropometric Characteristics of Health Workers in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Globally, the burden of cardio-metabolic diseases especially obesity, hypertension, diabetes is rapidly increasing, and the African continent is most affected region in the world.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed the blood pressure patterns, stress assessment and anthropometric characteristics of health workers in Jos university teaching hospital, Jos, Nigeria<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Apparently healthy 283 staff was randomly selected. Structured questionnaire, anthropometric instruments and digital sphygmomanometer were used to source information from the respondents. Obesity, blood pressurepatterns and stress assessment of the respondents were assessed in according to WHO standard and International Stress Management Association (ISMA) respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square. In all cases, a probability of (&lt;0.05) were taken to indicates level of significance<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the respondents was 36.72 ± 9.47years. More females (68%) participated in the study than males (32%). Only (21.6%) of the respondents drink alcohol, 2.5% smoke cigarette, 65% did not engage in physical exercise while 18.1% eat late at night. Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity as determined by abnormal values for BMI, WC, WHR, BIA and WHtR were 48.9%, 31.1%, 43.1%, 65% and 71.4% respectively while 30.1% had a raised blood pressure,more than half (69.9%) of the respondents were either moderately or highly stressed. Significant difference was found in age, nature of work and parents with chronic Diseasesacross the gender (p&lt;0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Overweight, obesity, moderate stress level and high blood pressure were prevalent among the health workers. Obesity was the risk factor of high blood pressure among them.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypertension, obesity, stress, health workers, alcohol</p> O.I. Olanrewaju, O.O. Olaitan, M.A. Roland-Ayodele, P.O. Umeaku Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of Obesity and its Implications on the Reproductive Health Outcomes of young Female Adults (19-35years) in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Obesity is a worldwide health epidemic and a major public health concern globally with negative impact on reproductive health.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed the Knowledge of Obesity on Reproductive Health Outcomes of young Female Adults in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State.<br><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study which involved 500 young female's adults who were systematically sampled. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to source information from participants. Knowledge of Health implications (HIs) of obesity was assessed on a 9point scale. Score lower or equal (≤3), was regarded as low knowledge while Score (≥4≤6), was regarded as average knowledge and those who score greater or equals (≥7≤9) are treated as excellent knowledge of HIs.Obesity was assessed using Body mass index. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square. A probability of P&lt;0.05 was taken to indicate level of significance.<br><strong>Result</strong>: Findings show that hospital, radio/television and school are the major sources of information about obesity by the respondents. The study shows that 50.2%of the participants perceived that obesity increase the risk of miscarriage, while 35.2%, irregular period, 35.2% infertility, and 42.0% cesarean section. Knowledge score of health implications of obesity revealed that only 5% had an excellent<br>knowledge, about 62.2% had average knowledge while 32.8% had low knowledge.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Knowledge of the health implication of obesity was low among the participants. Therefore, health enlightenment&nbsp; programmes with emphasis on health implications of obesity for young adults is urgently needed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Obesity, Young Females, Health Implication, miscarriage</p> O.I. Olanrewaju, P.O. Ukegbu, Bukola Dele-Olawumi , E.O. Adedayo Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Osteoporosis Knowledge, Perception and Preventive Behaviours of In-School Adolescents In Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Up to 90 percent of peak bone mass is acquired within 18-20 years, which makes adolescence the best time to invest in bone health. Having the right knowledge and perception is likely to influence preventive behaviours.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study was designed to assess the osteoporosis knowledge, perception and preventive behaviors of in-school&nbsp; adolescents in selected LGAs in Ibadan metropolis.<br><strong>Methodology</strong>: The study was descriptive and cross-sectional in design. A total of 350 respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on respondents' osteoporosis knowledge, health belief model constructs and preventive behaviours. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used analyze the variables<br><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that 48.9% of the respondents had poor osteoporosis knowledge. More than half of them had low perception towards osteoporosis risks (52.3%), severity (72.0%), barriers (59.1%) and benefits (63.1%) of preventive behavior. A preponderance of physical activity engagement was reported during school break periods (75.7%) than at home (35.1%). Study reported a daily consumption of bone health promoting foods like milk, egg, leafy vegetables, fish and meat by 42.6%, 36.9%, 38.0%, 56.9% and 59.1% of the respondents. Significant association between osteoporosis knowledge and some preventive behaviour variables were observed.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study revealed a poor knowledge, low perception and mild osteoporosis preventive behaviours of the respondents. A conducive school environment aimed at mitigating osteoporosis risks through provision of facilities and increase in time allotted for physical activity awareness/participation should be advocated.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Osteoporosis, knowledge, preventive behavior, in-school adolescents, Ibadan Nigeria</p> Gideon O. Iheme, Grace T. Fadupin Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Anthropometric Status of Children Aged 6-12 Years Attending Public and Private Schools in Umuahia North Local Government Area of Abia State <p><strong>Background:</strong> The determination of the nutritional status of children is important to the growth of a nation, hence nutritionists focus on childhood nutrition.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study was conducted to determine the anthropometric status of children aged 6-12years and compare between children attending public and private schools in Umuahia North Local Government Area, Abia State.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A cross sectional comparative study was conducted among 356 children who were randomly selected from four public schools and four private schools in Umuahia North Local Goverment Area, Abia State using a validated questionnare. Descriptive statistics was used to sort the anthropometric characteristics and WHO anthropometry software was used for evaluation.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Equal percentage (1.7%) of children had stunting in both public and private schools. Wasting was higher in private school (9.6%) than in public schools (5.1%). Overweight/obese was seen to be significantly higher (p=0.0006) in private schools than in public schools. The p value for BMI for age showed a significant association (p=0.002) with the age of the children in public schools.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is no significant difference in stunting, wasting and underweight in children attending public or private schools.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Anthropometric status, aged 6-12years, public and private school</p> Patricia O. Umeaku, Ada D. Oguizu Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dietary Patterns and Nutrient Adequacy of Diets Consumed by Pregnant Women in Nsukka Area of Enugu State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adequate nutrition during pregnancy is essential to support fetal growth and physiological changes in the body of the mother, and had been associated with good pregnancy outcomes.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the dietary patterns and nutrient adequacy of diets consumed by pregnant women in Nsukka Area of Enugu State, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Multistage sampling technique was used to obtain&nbsp; representative sample of 386 pregnant women. Food frequency questionnaire was used to collect data on respondents' dietary&nbsp; patterns. Nutrient intakes were assessed by 3-day weighed food intake study, and were analyzed as percentages of FAO/WHO daily nutrient requirement values for pregnant women. Descriptive statistics were carried out on data collected.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Respondents consumed varied nutrient sources (mostly plant-based) which led to adequate intakes of most nutrients.&nbsp; However, niacin and riboflavin intakes were lower (12.2mg [72.6%] and 0.95mg [63.3%], respectively) than requirements due to low consumption of animal foods. Starchy roots/tubers made highest contribution to respondents' energy (591Kcal [23%]) and&nbsp; carbohydrate (124Kcal [34.7%]) intakes. Legumes contributed most to protein (35.2g [52.3%]), iron (11.2mg [41.9%]), thiamin (0.8mg<br>[53.3%]) and niacin (4.05mg [33.2%]) intakes. Fruits and vegetables contributed most to riboflavin (0.3mg [31.6%]), ascorbic acid (121mg [77.7%]) and calcium (317mg [33.8%]) intakes.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Nigerian plant-based foods, when well mixed to complement one another and with proper preparation techniques to conserve sensitive nutrients, can provide adequate amount of nutrients. Promotion of traditional dishes and proper processing&nbsp; technique through nutrition education of women is therefore, imperative. Again, animal foods should be made more affordable through government subsidization.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Dietary intakes, pregnant women, Nsukka</p> Scholastica N. Eze, Nnenna O. Onuoha, Peace N. Ani, Raphael I. Edeh, Nkechi G. Onyeke Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fatty Acids Prole of Repeatedly Used Vegetable Oils by the Roadside Food Vendors in Owo Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: The consumption of saturated fatty acid is a major risk factor for the rise in the mortality rate among individuals who suffer from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: The study investigated the fatty acid profile of repeatedly used vegetable oils by the road side food vendors in Owo metropolis.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Two (2) different vegetable oils used for frying fish and bean cake by the vendors were collected in Owo. The oils were chosen on the bases that they have been reused for at least five days. Fresh palm olien oil and palm oil were used as control samples. The fatty acid composition of the oil samples was determined using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA to test for the level of significant difference in the variation of the means.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Findings showed that repeatedly used palm olien oil and palm oil respectively had higher values of total saturated fatty acid (62.36% and 60.09%) compared to the control samples (45.50% and 51.00%) Total unsaturated fatty acid (40.21% and 45.13%), total Polyunsaturated fatty acid (9.96% and 9.98%), and total monounsaturated fatty acid (26.42% and 30.05%) of the reused oil samples were significantly lower when compared to the control samples (54.50% and 49.00%), (11.50% and 10.00%), and (43.90% and 39.00%), respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Repeatedly used oils increased the concentration of TSAs and decreased TUSFAs, which can negatively impact on the cardiovascular health of the consumers </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Palm olien oil, palm oil, reused oil, unsaturated fatty acid, cardiovascular health</p> O.O. Folahan, O.O. Bolajoko, O.I. Olanrewaju Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Food Consumption Score, Dietary Habits and Anthropometric Indices of Market Traders in Owo Township, Ondo State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Globally, the burden of obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing, and the African continent is not left out.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> This study assessed the food consumption score, dietary habits and anthropometric indices of market traders in Owo Township, Ondo State, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study, which involved 205traders who were conveniently selected from three major markets in Owo. Information from the participants was obtained using structured, self- administered questionnaire. Food consumption score was assessed using World Food Programme (WFP) food consumption analysis while central obesity was assessed using Waist–Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-Height ratio (WHtR). Data was presented in frequency and percentage. All statistics was test at significant level of P ≤ 0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Results revealed that (30.2%) of the market traders were within the age group of 30- 39years,57.6% of the respondents were married, while approximately27% had between 4 and 6 children. About 67.3% of the respondents were Christian. Few (6.3%) had first degree certificate. Majorities, (90.7%) always add vegetables to their diet and 39.5% % eat fruit regularly while 56.1% meet the acceptable food consumption score. Abnormal values for WC, WHR, and WHtR were 26.8%, 38.5%, and 47.8% respectively.A significant difference existed waist circumference (P=0.02), waist-hip ratio (P=0.003), waist to height ratio (P=0.001), and sex of the respondents.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study observed high prevalence of central obesity and a high acceptable food consumption score level among the market traders in Owo.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Food consumption score, traders, dietary habits, central obesity</p> O.O. Folahan, B.A. Odunuga, Bukola Dele-Olawumi Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Undernutrition in Nigerian under-ve children and associated household factors <p><strong>Background:</strong> Undernutrition in under-five children (U-5) in Nigeria is high. Children's household characteristics influence their nutritional status.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine the prevalence of undernutrition in U-5 and their household characteristics.<br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study involved 531 U-5 randomly sampled through a multi-stage sampling technique in Oyo State. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on household characteristics. Height and weight of the children were measured to calculate stunting (height-for-age z-score &lt; -2SD), wasting (weight-for-height z-score &lt; -2SD) and underweight (weight-for-age z-score &lt; -2SD). Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to established relationship between household factors and stunting, wasting and underweight at 5% level of significance.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The median age of the children was 9.0 months. Stunting, wasting and underweight were found in 21.7%, 11.3% and 7.8% U-5 respectively. Overall, 94.5% households were headed by male, 82.9% had ≤ 6members and 61.8% were monogamous. Fathers were always present in 92.6% households and 96.2% households had 1-2 U-5. Stunting was significantly higher when there were &gt; 6members, &gt;2 U-5 and absence of child's father in the household. Prevalence of wasting and underweight was higher in extended family and female headed households respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Stunting, wasting and underweight in U-5 still exist in the study location. Large household size, absence of child's father in the household, large number of U-5, female headship and extended family arrangement were associated with undernutrition in U-5. Household factors should be put into consideration when planning nutrition-related intervention programme. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Stunting, Wasting, Underweight, Under-five children, Household</p> Israel O. Dada, Rasaki A. Sanusi, Oluremi O. Keshinro, Isaac O. Akinyele Copyright (c) Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000