Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences <p>The Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences (ISSN 0189-0913), official Journal of the Nutrition Society of Nigeria, is a peer-reviewed publication and is published biannually, two volumes per year.</p> <p>The primary focus of the journal is the publication of basic and applied studies in nutritional sciences and related fields. The following types of manuscripts are considered: original research articles, review articles, issues and opinions, special communications, letters to the Editor, book reviews, and proceedings of symposia. The journal is intended for a wide audience, including, nutritionists, dieticians, biochemists, health professionals, home economists, policy makers, students of nutrition and related fields, health educators, and all those in the health sciences. Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US <p>Manuscripts are accepted for publication with the understanding that no substantial part has been, or will be published elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright is transferred to the publisher if and when the articles, including reprints, photographic reproduction and translation are published. Copyright owner is the Nutrition Society of Nigeria. An abstract at the beginning of an article may be reproduced without specific permission provided the original citation is provided. Statements made and opinions expressed in letters to the editor, editorials, presidential address, book reviews, and other special articles appearing in this journal are views of the author(s) and do not necessary reflect the position of the journal or the Nutrition Society of Nigeria.</p> (Prof. Marshall A. Azeke) (Nutrition Society of Nigeria) Mon, 26 Feb 2024 07:27:05 +0000 OJS 60 Proximate and mineral compositions of Spondias mombin, Canarium schweinfurthii, and Citrus sinensis fruits <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Fruits are well known for being nourishing. In Nigeria, some are used and eaten to their full potential, while others go underutilized. A preference for their usage in nutrition may result from elucidating the nutritional benefits of certain fruits.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>This study investigated the proximate and mineral composition of fruits from Spondias mombin (Hog plum), Canarium schweinfurthii (Bullet pear), and Citrus sinensis (Orange) trees in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>Fruits were collected, washed, peeled, and carefully pressed into pulps. The pulp was investigated for proximate and mineral compositions following standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. At p&lt;0.05 level of significance, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The proximate and mineral compositions of the fruits were significant (p &lt; 0.05). The protein levels in the fruits were 2.60 ± 0.12 to 3.74±0.01 percent. Carbohydrate content was C. schweinfurthii: 33.43 ± 0.026; S. mombin: 1.01 ± 0.12; and C. sinensis: 2.37 ± 0.15. The ash contents of the fruits were low (1.34 - 2.86g/100 g). Citrus sinensis has the least amount of fat (0.55), while C. schweinfurthii has the highest (1.57). The minerals present in the fruits were in the order of </em>K ˃ Na ˃ Ca ˃ Mg ˃ Fe ˃ Zn ˃ P ˃ Cu ˃ Mn ˃ nitrate.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The fruits have ample nutrients, therefore, lack of nutritional information on the moderately utilized and underutilized fruits may be responsible for the peoples' preferred choice of well-utilized fruits.</em></p> Nwabumma C. Asouzu, Christian E. Offor, Patrick M. Aja, Boniface A. Ale, Nonso C. Asouzu, Peter C. Agu Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and awareness of prehypertension and hypertension among artisans in two selected local government areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Hypertension and its complications constitute a major health challenge worldwide.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>This study therefore investigated the prevalence and awareness of hypertension and prehypertension in two selected local government areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Method: </em></strong><em>A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using six hundred and twenty Artisans (300 males and 320 females) aged between 18 and 65 years from two local government areas of Ebonyi State. Structured, validated, pre- tested interviewer administered questionnaire were used to collect data on respondents' socio-demographic characteristics. Anthropometric indices and blood pressure were measured using standard procedures. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version16.0).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Result: </em></strong><em>The mean age (in years) of participants was 30.5±11.5 (males) and 30.5±11.5 (females).The mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.8±2.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup> (males) and 24.4 ±3.7kg/m<sup>2</sup> (females). Overweight was significantly higher in males (33.7%) than in females (10.3%) (P&lt;0.05) while obesity was significantly higher in females (6.6%) than in males (2.7%) (P &lt;0.05).The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension on all the participants were 33.1% and 14.8%, respectively. Prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in women (20.3%) than men (9.0%) (P &lt; 0.05). Up to 68.3% of males and 71.6%, of females were not aware of hypertension (P &gt;0.05) while 72.0% male and 90.9% females had not checked their blood pressure before.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>High prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension along with poor awareness of hypertension and poor monitoring of blood pressure were observed. Intensive health education is recommended in the communities.</em></p> G.N. Onyeji, M.O. Ifeanacho, K.O. Ikpemo, I.C. Benneth-Ugochukwu, O.G. Ufebe Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Nutrients, antinutrients and sensory evaluation of jam produced from date palm fruit (<i>Phoenix dactylifera</i>) <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Providing information about the nutritional composition of underutilized edible fruits and their products can increase the willingness to consume this kind of food as potential remedy to malnutrition.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>This study was aimed to determine the nutrient and antinutrient compositions and sensory attributes of jams produced from date fruit.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>The matured fresh and dried date fruits were processed into jams by boiling with lemon. Nutrients and antinutrient contents of the date fruits and produced jams were evaluated using standard methods of analysis and results compared with commercial jams as control.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The result showed that dried date fruit contains moisture (13.10 ± 0.10 g/100g), protein (4.38 ± 0.01 g/100g), crude lipid(1.00 ± 0.10 g/100g), crude fiber (0.40 ± 0.10 g/100g), ash (1.50 ± 0.01 g/100g)and rich in carbohydrate(79.62 ± 0.01 mg/100g). Its vitamin contents were vitamin C(8.28 ± 0.00 mg/100g), A (1.69 ± 0.71 mg/100g), and B3 (1.03 ± 0.00 mg/100g). Mineral composition was Fe (2.68 ± 0.00 mg/100g), P (73.10 ± 0.01 mg/100g) and Ca(63.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g). Dried date jam showed appreciable amount (P&lt;0.05)of crude lipid (0.60 ± 0.10 g/100g), carbohydrate (32.79± 0.01 g/100g), ash (0.25 ± 0.10 g/100g), crude fibre (0.20 ± 0.01 g/100g)and micronutrient (vitamin C, Fe and Ca) contents compared with the raw fruit and the strawberry jam used as control. The result obtained for the anti nutritional factors showed a reduction (P&lt;0.05) in tannin (0.90-0.09mg/100g) and oxalate (3.19 - 3.05±0.02mg/100) compared with dried fruit. However, the commercial jams (apricot and strawberry) were rated highest (albeit, P&gt;0.05) in all sensory parameters and acceptability investigated.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Date fruit and their jams can serve to supplement the nutrients provided by other staples due to their nutritional quality and therefore should be promoted.</em></p> Chinaza Precious Uche, Chinyere Akudo Echendu, Paul Ndubuisi Anyiam, Patricia Ogechi Ukegbu Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Association between household food insecurity and malnutrition among school aged children in Nnewi Southeast Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Malnutrition in school aged children can predispose to infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases and death. Numerous risk factors of childhood malnutrition has been published with generation of instituted policies, yet the complications of childhood malnutrition is still not abated in our locality. Hence the need to explore the effect of house hold food insecurity (HHFIS) on childhood malnutrition.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><em>: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and the association between HHFIS and malnutrition among 6-12-year-old primary school pupils in Nnewi Southeast Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 270 primary school pupils. Sociodemographic data was collected using a pretested interviewer administered questionnaire. Information on food availability in the home was collected and used to grade HHFIS into food secured household, moderate food insecurity, Household food insecurity, Severe HHFIS/child hunger. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0. Level of significance for tests of association was set at 5%.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: The result showed that 143(53%) were males and 127(47%) were females. Seventy-five (27.8%) were wasted, 21(7.8%) had severe wasting, 18(6.7%) had underweight, 17(6.3%) were overweight, while 9(3.3%) had obesity and 3(1.1%) were stunted. Low Socio-Economic Class (SEC) and HHFIS, were associated with under-nutrition. (p &lt; 0.05) While high SEC and HHFIS were associated with overweight/obesity (p &lt; 0.05).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: The prevalence of under nutrition was high among 6-12 year old school children in Nnewi. Prompt and adequate provision of household food security can help mitigate the impact of malnutrition in the sub region.</em></p> Nkechinyere G. Obichukwu, Clement C. Ezechukwu, Jacinta C. Elo-Ilo, Amala O. Odita Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The state of food loss and waste in Nigeria: Causes, impacts, efforts to reduce the menace and way forward <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Nigeria, the giant of Africa is faced with food insecurity, and the amount of food lost and wasted is a huge contributor to the ravaging hunger faced by the populace. Reducing Food Loss and Waste (FLW) in Nigeria has become a global concern.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><em>: To review the current state of FLW in Nigeria, the likely causes, the economic social, and environmental impact, and the efforts to reduce the menace.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>: Over Fifty relevant scientific published articles relating to FLW that are within ten years of publication and current news (not more than five years) on FLW from reputable newspapers were sourced online through Elsevier, google scholar, and research gate among others.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: Increased insecurity, poor quality inputs, poor road networks, and transportation coupled with poor packaging have been identified as some of the causes of FLW in Nigeria, </em><em>the entire food system is found to be affected by FLW as well as the nation's economy. Among several strategies employed to mitigate FLW, transiting to a circular economy seems to be succeeding as evidenced in some parts of the country.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong><em>continuity of programs that could reduce FLW in Nigeria is not encouraging and should be encouraged by the government at all levels.</em></p> Lilian Aburime Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Nutritional status of children under-five years in Ido-Osi Local Government Area, Southwest Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Malnutrition in children under-five years is a major public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>To assess the nutritional status and pattern of infant feeding practices of under-five years children in Ido-Osi Local government Area, Ekiti State, South west, Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of 419 children aged 0-59 months. R</em><em>espondents were selected from Primary Health Care centers and nursery and primary schools in the study area using simple random sampling technique. Data on demographic profile and feeding pattern of the under-five were obtained from their Mothers using interviewer-administered questionnaire while anthropometric measurements of the children were taken. Data collected were analyzed using World health Organization (WHO) Anthro package for under five and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>A total of 419 children; 281(52.0%) males and 201 (48.0%) females aged 0-59 months were enrolled into this study. Of the under-five assessed 34(8.11%) were underweight, 67(15.99%) were stunted while 34(8.11%) were wasted. A total of 31(88.6%) mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for 0-6months, 42(48.84%) practiced early initiation of breastfeeding between 30-60mimnutes after delivery according to WHO standard. Underweight, wasting and stunting were 12.12%, 9.09%, 31.82% and 15.0%, 20.0%, 35.0% among children exclusively breastfed and those who were not respectively.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Malnutrition especially stunting rate was high in the study area but </em><em>low among children exclusively breastfed. Nutrition programs on appropriate feeding practices to promote good nutritional status is recommended.</em></p> Funmilayo Esther Omotoye, Kayode Ajayi, Israel Olanrele Dada, Davidson Obinna Igbokwe, Oluwadare Deji Fabusuyi Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Acceptability of African palm weevil (<i>Rynchophorus phoenicis</i>) incorporated pie in a university in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The world is recently promoting the innovative inclusion of insects as ingredients in human diet, as part of tackling food insecurity and actualizing zero hunger. Edible insect species especially the African Palm Weevil, Rynchophorus phoenicis is available, affordable and forms the integral part of diets for several communities in Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>The acceptance of edible larvae incorporated pie was determined in a university in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>Edible larvae were sourced, processed and incorporated into pie. This was labelled A (unconventional pie) and served as treatment for the experiment. Conventional pie (meat) was labelled B (served as control). A semi-structured questionnaire with attributes that influenced 500 consumer's choice was used. Hedonic test was conducted and responses were obtained.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Female respondents (77%) predominated the acceptance of edible worm pie (mean age of 23.73 years) and majority of which were single, undergraduate students and not financially stable. Over 50% of the respondents had knowledge of edible insects and had tasted them against 16% and 39% who lacked knowledge and have never tried edible insect respectively. Chi-square test show that age (p= 0.996 and 0.873), gender (p= 0.877 and 0.851), marital status (p= 0.828 and 0.672), economic status (p= 0.959 and 0.714), occupation (p= 0.833 and 0.542), and level of education (p= 0.999 and 0.815) attributes did not differ significantly (p&gt;0.05) with willingness to eat and smell test samples. Most consumers were willing to continue eating the unconventional pie incorporated with the edible insect, undermining the taste and smell.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>More hedonic studies are required to expand the focus of insect inclusion in familiar products and the choice of their acceptance.</em></p> Cynthia C. Ojianwuna, Victor N. Enwemiwe Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional composition and sensory attributes of cocoa-based beverage produced from cocoa beans, soybean, sorghum leaves, and date fruit <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>With the rise in the cost of commercial cocoa beverages nationwide, its pertinent to produce alternative cocoa beverages that can supply nutrients for the nourishment of the body as against the usual sugar-dense commercial beverages in the market</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>The nutritional composition and sensory attribute of cocoa-based beverage produced from cocoa beans, soybean, sorghum leaves and date fruit were assessed</em></p> <p><strong><em>Method: </em></strong><em>The Soybean, Sorghum leaf, date fruit and Cocoa beans were procured from King's Market and Okunriboye Merchant Company in Owo Local Government Area, Ondo State respectively. Products were formulated as follows: Sample CSDS<sub>1</sub> (70% Cocoa beans; 20% Soybean; 5% date fruit; 5% sorghum leaves, CSDS<sub>2</sub> (60% Cocoa beans; 25% Soybean; 10% date fruit; 5% sorghum leaves), CSDS<sub>3</sub> (50% Cocoa beans; 30% Soybean; 15% date fruit; 5% sorghum leaves), CSDS<sub>4</sub> (40% Cocoa beans; 35% Soybean; 20% date fruit; 5% sorghum leaves) and CCBB was used as control. Samples were subjected to chemical analyses and instrumental analysis according to standard. Analysis of variance using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23 was performed. Significance was accepted at P&lt;0.05.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Result: </em></strong><em>Findings shows that the protein, selenium, sodium and vitamin B<sub>1</sub> were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in the products than the control sample while vitamin C, vitamin B<sub>2</sub>, B<sub>3</sub>, B<sub>5</sub>, B<sub>6</sub>, and B<sub>9</sub>, calcium, iron and zinc were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in the control than the formulated products. Sample CSDS<sub>1</sub> had the highest (503mg) potassium while CSDS<sub>4</sub> was the most accepted in terms of colour.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The formulated beverages had appreciable amount of protein, fat, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc and thiamin. Acceptability in all the parameters increases with increase in the addition soybeans flour.</em></p> Oyinloye. O. Yisa, Omowumi H. Ukah, Oyeyemi E. Adedayo, Omoniyi I. Olanrewaju Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of sensory attributes and acceptability of cookies made from wheat-tiger nut flour under different storage conditions <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The global demand of tiger nut for its nutritional, functional and medicinal properties in food fortification is constantly increasing and requires further analysis of its product.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>In this work, sensory result of cookies produced from wheat flour blended with tiger nut flour under different storage conditions for three weeks was evaluated for each week of the storage.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>: Data generated from sensory attributes was validated using statistical control chart design to determine critical control points (CCPs) for quality product. At 5% level of significance, the degree of similarity during optimization of different formulated samples was further investigated to establish quality level of acceptability of each product sample based on control limits convergence.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>In the first week of storage, sample WTD 121 had close range of convergence indicating high level of acceptability. In the second and third week of storage, both samples WTD 141 and WTD 151 had high acceptability. Microbial analysis during storage at week 0, 1, 2 and 3 showed that under ambient condition, bacteria count ranges from 0 to 7 </em><em>х </em><em>10<sup>2</sup> cfu/g and fungi count ranges from 0 to 4.5 </em><em>х </em><em>10<sup>2</sup> cfu/g. Storage under refrigeration condition revealed that bacteria count ranges from 0 to 3 </em><em>х </em><em>10<sup>2</sup> cfu/g and fungi count ranges from 0 to 1.5 </em><em>х </em><em>10<sup>2</sup> cfu/g. Bacteria and fungi count ranges from 0 to 3.0 </em><em>х </em><em>10<sup>2</sup> cfu/g and </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>0 to 1.0 </em><em>х </em><em>10<sup>2</sup> cfu/g respectively under freezing storage condition.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The product falls within control limits and within standard of microbial specification for food.</em></p> Musa Omotayo Jimoh, Adeleke Justin Akinkurolere Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional status and alcohol consumption of commercial drivers in Enugu North Local Government Enugu area of Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Alcohol is a psychoactive substance and its excessive intake has been linked to various nutritional diseases.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>This study assessed the nutritional status and alcohol consumption of commercial motor drivers in Enugu North LGA of Enugu State.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>Simple random sampling was used to select two hundred and fifty (250) commercial motor drivers from five commercial motor parks within the Local Government Area. A modified and semi-structured interviewer's administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on the respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, food habits, and alcohol consumption respectively while anthropometric method was used to assess nutritional status with the use of weighing scale (weight) and heightometer (height). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data at p &lt;0.05. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Result: </em></strong><em>The majority (40%) were between 30-39years, 71.6% married, 52.4% secondary school and 98% Igbo. About 53% ate twice a day, 91% skipped their lunch meal and 90% bought their food from a vendor. Beer consumption (24.4%) was the highest and the majority were overweight (47.6%). A significant association between socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption and nutritional status was observed (p&lt;0.05). The majorities of the respondents consumed alcohol (91.4%), especially beer, in high proportions (54%), had poor dietary habits and, as a result, were overweight. Alcohol consumption was associated with the socio-demographic characteristics and nutritional status of the respondents.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Appropriate nutrition education to promote healthy eating habits and lifestyles is thus required.</em></p> T. O. Olurin, Y. O. Adebayo, K. O. Olutayo, S. S. Siyanbola Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Body mass index versus bioelectric impedance analysis for the assessment of obesity and excess body fat among adolescents in Abia State, Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The body mass index (BMI) Z- score is widely used in children and adolescents to assess overweight/obesity, but does not determine the body fat percentage (BF%). The bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) can be used to determine body fat, because it provides information on body mass composition.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>To evaluate the ability of the BMI Z-scores to predict BF% in adolescents.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This cross sectional survey included 277 randomly selected adolescent (10-19 years) boys and girls in Umuahia Metropolis, Abia State, Nigeria. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age Z-scores calculated using WHO standards, while BF% was estimated using BIA. Sensitivity and specificity of BMI Z-score ≥+1.00 were calculated and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and Area Under the Curve (AUC) were used to determine the diagnostic ability of BMI Z-score to predict BF%. Inferential statistics was performed with the Student's t - test, Pearson's correlation and Chi Square test.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Overall, 4.7% of participants have excess BF% and 9% were obese using BIA and BMI Z-score, respectively. Mean BMI-Z score and BF% were -0.36±1.08 and 16.08±6.83%, respectively. Percent BF was significantly correlated with BMI Z-score (r= 0.626). The AUC was &gt; 0.89 and &gt;0.75 in girls and boys, respectively. Sensitivity was high (80% and 84%) and specificity was moderate (65% and 60%) in boys and girls, respectively.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The high sensitivity but moderate specificity in detecting excess BF% underscores the need for more direct measurement of body fat, to improve the diagnostic accuracy of overweight and obesity.</em></p> Patricia Ogechi Ukegbu, Amarachi Precious Nwonu, Chinyere Akudo Echendu, Chinaza Precious Uche, Ijeoma Okereke, Uzochukwu Anselm Onwuzuruike, Martina Oga, Beulah Ortutu, Nneoma Elechi Obasi Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of nutritional status and feeding pattern of under- five children in Edo Central Senatorial District <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Malnutrition is a significant public health problem and it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children below 5 years of age.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>To examine the relationship between nutritional status and feeding pattern of under-five children in Esan-land, Edo State Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Single-stage random sampling technique was used to recruit 300 mother-child dyads from the Edo Central Senatorial LGAs. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics of mothers and feeding pattern plus nutritional status of child pair. Anthropometric included mid upper arm circumference to assess malnutrition (MUAC &lt;125mm). IBM SPSS 22 Version was used to analyze the data.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Among the 300 mothers, mean age of mothers was 29.5 years. 23% are unaware of the relationship between nutritional status and feeding pattern, but 57% have knowledge of significant nutrients. Out of the 300 children, 54% are females, daily feeding pattern was 0.7% fed once, 7.7% fed twice, 30% fed thrice and 61.7% &gt;3 /day. Further, 65% were well nourished (MUAC &lt;135mm), and 64.8% of the 105 malnourished children were stunted, while 35.2% represented acute malnutrition. There was a significant statistical association between the mother's awareness of nutritional status versus practiced feeding pattern (P = 0.001).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>There is need to promote infant and young child feeding. Although exclusive breastfeeding may match with level of knowledge among mothers, those who indicate lack of knowledge are still high and over one-third of under-5 children were found malnourished.</em></p> Malachy B Peter, Osahon Otaigbe, Ezekiel U Nwose, Chiedozie G Ike Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Consumption pattern, physical activity level and anthropometric indices of consumers of franchised fast food in South western states in Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>: Consumption pattern of franchised fast foods is not only a result of necessity but also status reflector for some consumers. Among several factors that determine health, physical activity level is found to play a major role in contributing to healthy lifestyle.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><em>: The study assessed the consumption pattern, physical activity level and anthropometric indices of consumers of franchised fast food in South Western States in Nigeria</em><strong><em>.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Method</em></strong><em>: A multi-stage sampling technique was used for the study to draw out 300 samples. A well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on fast food consumption and anthropometric indices</em><strong><em>. </em></strong><em>Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to measure physical activity level. Data were analyzed using the statistical software in IBM SPSS version 20. Level of significance was set at P&lt;0.05.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: Greater (56.7%) percentage of the respondents were females. Almost half (46.7%) of the respondents had first degree. Most people in the study preferred roasted and fried chicken to other franchised fast foods. There are 49% of the respondents who are moderately active, just 19% of the respondent were sedentary, and 32% of the respondents were very active. There are 32% and 48% of the respondents that were overweight and obese respectively and a significant difference was observed between female respondents' physical activity and waist to hip ratio (p=0.050).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The study shows high prevalence of abdominal obesity in both gender. Also majority of the population are either overweight or obese.</em></p> Y.O. Uthman-Akinhanmi, D.D. Ademiluyi, O.A. Akinola, O.I. Olayiwola, A.O. Akinyemi, E.O. Akinlose, J.E. Okolosi, J.G. Ilo Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Iodine and Potassium Iodide content of packet salts sold in major markets in Enugu State, Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em> Potassium iodide is a chemical form of iodine used to supplement iodine intake in edible salts to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objectives: </em></strong><em>The aim of this study was to determine the iodine and potassium iodide content of different salt brands sold in major markets in Enugu state and compare these values with the national standard for retail-level salts.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>Six salt brands, including three local and three foreign brands, were randomly purchased from the market in Enugu state. The iodometric titration method was used in the analytical laboratory to determine the salt samples' iodine and potassium iodide content. One-sample student t-test was used to compare the results with the national standards for iodine and potassium iodide, while Analysis of Variance and Turkey HSD tests were used to compare the mean values of the different salt samples. Statistical significance was set at p &lt; 0.05.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: The iodine content of the salt samples ranged from 30.55 to 45.25 ppm, and the potassium iodide content ranged from 24.10 to 47.60 ppm. All the samples met the national standard requirement for iodine (&gt;30 ppm), but all were below the standard for potassium iodide (&gt;50 ppm).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The iodine levels in major salts sold in major markets in Enugu state met the National standard, but the potassium iodide content fell short of the requirements set by food law in Nigeria.</em></p> Aloysius Nwabugo Maduforo, Benedict Daniel Chuka, Clementina Ebere Okoro, Miracle Chikadibia Aloysius-Maduforo, Chika Ndiokwelu, Chidinma Jecinta Ezeh Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative analysis of the energy and nutrient composition of cooked and uncooked cow intestines consumed in Accra, Ghana <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The cow intestine is a delicacy cherished and eaten by many persons in West Africa, but there is a paucity of data on its nutrient composition.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>To compare and analyze the energy and nutrient (proximate, mineral [iron, phosphorus, copper, and zinc] and free fatty acid (FFA) [as oleic]) composition of cooked and uncooked cow intestines commonly consumed in Accra, Ghana.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>Samples of cow intestines were obtained from the markets by purposive sampling and subsequently processed for analysis. The nutrient composition was determined using standard methods. Statistical analysis was conducted using the independent sample t-test in IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 to compare the data obtained from the uncooked and cooked samples. A significance level of P &lt; 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Comparisons between the two samples showed that the moisture reduced significantly (p=0.001) after cooking and carbohydrate content in the uncooked sample was 6.13g/100g but disappeared after cooking (p=0.000). The ash content was significantly lower (p=0.002) in the uncooked sample (0.46 g/100g) than in the cooked sample (0.6 g/100g). However, the energy, fat, and protein content were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in the cooked cow intestine than in the uncooked cow intestines. There was no significant difference in the concentration of FFA (as oleic) content of cooked cow intestines and uncooked cow intestines (p=0.8093). The zinc, copper, and iron concentrations reduced significantly (p&lt;0.05) after cooking while the phosphorus content increased significantly (p=0.000) by 105.15% after cooking.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: The study provided data on some minerals, proximate, and FFA (as oleic) composition of uncooked and cooked cow intestines. Findings showed that cow intestines have a substantial nutrient composition that can make a significant contribution to nutrient intakes in the diet of individuals.</em></p> Aloysius Nwabugo Maduforo, Tamimu Yakubu, Matilda Asante, Anna Amoako-Mensah, Miracle Chikadibia Aloysius-Maduforo, Clementina Ebere Okoro Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Variations in the nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of eight accessions of jute (<i>Corchorius olitorius</i>) seeds <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Corchorus olitorius is an underutilized indigenous vegetable in Nigeria and it is characterized by high mineral and vitamin contents. The leaves and fresh fruits are traditionally used for making soup; however, little or no utility is placed on the dried seeds. Determination of the nutritional quality of the dried seeds will enhance its utilization potentials, both for human and as ingredients in animal feeds.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>The study evaluated the chemical compositions of eight accessions of C. olitorious dried seeds. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>Dried seeds of eight accessions of C. olitorious collected from research farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka were analyzed for proximate, anti-nutrient, mineral and vitamin contents using standard analytical procedures. Experimental procedures followed a completely randomized design (CRD) replicated three times. Data were subjected to ANOVA in CRD using GENSTAT statistical software.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Accession influenced some proximate, anti-nutrient, mineral and vitamin contents of the seed. Accession Ka-2 had more moisture content (5.75%). Accession Ik-1 yielded more protein (9.85%), cyanide (43.10 mg/100 g), phenol (55.90 mg/100 g) and Lycopene (0.600 mg/100 g). Oxalate was more in Ik-3 with 47.80 mg/100 g. Accession Ib-2 gave the highest phytate (20.32 mg/100 g) and </em><em>β</em><em>-Carotene (0.70 mg/100 g). Concentration of tannin was more (1.43 mg/100 g) in accession Ib-3. Iron was more in Ka-1 (0.32 mg/100 g). Zinc was more pronounced (2.18 mg/100 g) in accession Ib-1.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Differences in nutritional qualities as reported could guide the utility of the crop and suggest possibility for genetic improvement.</em></p> K. P. Baiyeri, C. J. Ihenebom, K. Olajide, S. O. Baiyeri, G. I. Davidson Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of feeding habits and lifestyle of undergraduate students in Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. <p><strong>Background</strong>: Feeding habits and lifestyle influence the nutritional and health status of all humans especially students of tertiary institutions.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>. The study assessed the feeding habits and lifestyles of university undergraduates.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The study design was a cross-sectional survey with a total of 400 undergraduate students randomly selected from various departments and faculties of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, using a multistage sampling technique. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data and analysed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Four hundred students between ages 15 and 34 years with a mean age of 21.7±22 participated in the study. Male respondents were 138 (34.5%), and 262 (65.5%) were females. Exactly 97.5% were single, while 10 (2.5%) were married. A total of 144 (36.0%) of respondents reported eating only homemade food, while 256 (64.0%) ate at least 1-5 times a week outside of home. A total of 201 (50.2%) reported they were usually very hungry before eating meals, 170 (42.5%) were a little bit hungry before eating meals, and 29 (7.2%) normally ate as at when due even when they were not hungry at all. Current use of alcohol among respondents revealed female respondents, 69 (54.8%), consumed alcohol more than their male counterparts 57 (45.2%). Ten, (3.8%) of the female respondents were current smokers as against the male respondents, 6 (4.4%). Most of the students, 250 (62.5%) were not engaged in regular exercise.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The feeding habits of most students studied need much to be desired, while few among them had unhealthy social lifestyles that could affect their nutritional health.</p> Samson Ayo Deji, Matthew Ayodeji Ojo, Emmanuel Sunday Ogunniyi, Ogundare Taiwo Oluwaseun, Bilikisu Toju Kolawole, Pius Okhereifo Oguns Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Repeated ingestion of combined trona and monosodium glutamate alters selected biochemical and hematological parameters in Wistar rats <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Trona and monosodium glutamate (MSG) are cooking ingredients commonly used together in some West African countries including Nigeria and Ghana. Discrepancies regarding the safety of these agents are causes for concern.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>To investigate the effects of repeated ingestion of combined trona and MSG on selected biochemical and hematological parameters in Wistar rats.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Method: </em></strong><em>Twenty four male rats weighing 160 ± 20 g were assigned into four groups (n = 6 per group). Rats were treated with distilled water (control), MSG (300 mg/kg bw), trona (500 mg/kg bw), and combined MSG (300 mg/kg bw) and trona (500 mg/kg bw) for 21 days. After the treatment, rats were euthanized and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical assays. Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student's t-test, and p &lt; 0.05 was considered significant.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Repeated ingestion of monosodium glutamate and trona caused significant increase in platelets and white blood cells compared to control. Total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total protein were significantly raised (p &lt; 0.05). Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly reduced. Serum level of creatinine was also significantly raised (p &lt; 0.05) in the treated rats compared to control.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Findings from the study indicate that repeated ingestion of combined trona and monosodium glutamate can dangerously alter the levels of endogenous antioxidants, hematological parameters, and biochemical indices of liver and kidney functions.</em></p> Kolawole Oyetunji, Azeez Funmilola, Akeem Ayankunle, Oluwaseyi Adeyeba Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of consumption of sourdough pearl millet (<i>Pennisetum glaucum</i>) snack on the hemoglobin and zinc status of school-age children in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Micronutrients are required by the body in minute quantities, and their absence can have highly negative effects. A food-based approach is needed to increase the consumption of an adequate amount of underutilized micronutrient-rich foods.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objectives</em></strong><em>: This study assessed the effect of consuming Sourdough excluded pearl millet snacks on the nutritional status of school-age children in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods: </em></strong><em>One hundred primary school age children were grouped into three study groups (sourdough pearl millet extruded snacks group, pearl millet extruded snack group, and ferrous supplement group) and monitored for eight weeks as part of the study's randomized block single-blind trial design. Blood samples from the subjects were taken at the start and end of the study, and hematological factors were examined (hemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum zinc). ANCOVA was used for statistical analysis. P&lt;0.05 was considered significant</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Results revealed the average age of the children was 105.9± 27.2 months with 49.0% being female and 51.0% male. 54.9% of respondents were anaemic, while 11.4% tested low in zinc. Haemoglobin and packed cell volume at the endpoint had significantly improved in the three groups (p&lt;0.05). Only the sourdough pearl millet extruded snacks, though, made a 10% improvement in the zinc status.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Sourdough pearl millet extruded snacks improved the hemoglobin status of anemic children and zinc status of children with low zinc levels. This study has demonstrated that sourdough pearl millet extruded snacks is a safe option for the treatment of anaemia in children, particularly those who do not enjoy taking medications.</em></p> Jumoke Georgina Ilo, Oluseye Olusegun Onabanjo, Catherine Adebukola Oladoyinbo, Olajide P. Sobukola Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the contribution of African yam bean (<i>Sphenostylis stenocarpa</i>) to farm households' food supply chain in Ekiti State, Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>African yam bean (AYB) had been largely grown in time past in Ekiti State for its huge nutritional, nutraceutical, and economic values. AYB's relevance in households' food supply chain and utilization has greatly reduced. Valid information on AYB consumption and utilization and possible constraints associated with its utilization in the State are therefore required to reposition the crop for food and nutrition security and policymaking</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><em>: The study assessed the contribution of African yam bean to farm households' food supply in Ekiti State.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods</em></strong><em>: Multistage random sampling technique was used in selecting 120 farm households for the study. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were employed in data collection. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The result showed that AYB delicacies for food security among farm households in the study area include: 75% boil and eat AYB alone, 70% eat it as yam porridge, 64.6% eat AYB as corn porridge, 51.7% eat it as plantain porridge, 26.7% eat AYB as moi-moi, 24.7% eat it as snack (baked), while only 14.2% roast AYB for consumption. AYB seeds (31.7%), fresh leaves (22.5%), tubers (47.5%) and residues (78.3%) are crucial in livestock feeding. Some of the constraints against AYB consumption include: long cooking period (93.3%), poor awareness of its nutritional benefits among the people (81.7%), poor availability of the seeds in market (51.7%), and low demand for the commodity (49.2%).</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study recommends improved supply of AYB seeds for increased consumption and more awareness creation on the nutritional benefits of AYB among Nigerians.</p> S. O. Baiyeri , T. A. Amusa, G. T.O. Otitoju, S. Victor-Sunday Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of nutrients, antinutrients and antioxidants concentrations in some edible forest vegetables in Ondo and Oyo State, South Western Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Native plants are important forest resource commonly explored in traditional cuisines and ethnomedicine in developing countries. Unfortunately, these plants are used routinely with inadequate awareness of their nutrient quality and bioactive components.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><em>: This study aimed at investigating the nutritional values, anti-nutrient factors, and antioxidant properties of selected native vegetables that are most commonly consumed in Southwestern Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Method</em></strong><em>: The target species were selected based on the preference of 80 respondents from eight different communities using a semi-structured questionnaire. Proximate, antinutrient, vitamins, and Antioxidants constituents were determined using standard methods.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: The nutritional composition reveals that S. biafrae leaves had the highest moisture (80.21%) and ash contents (3.82%). However, P. guineense leaves contain higher fibre (3.84%), protein (16.39%), and Carbohydrate (13.45%) content. Whereas P. mildbraedii leaves had a significantly high concentration of fat (0.94%). Very low antinutrient content was obtained from the vegetables, with S. biafrae having a significantly low level of phytate (1.24 mg/g), oxalate (0.09 mg/g), tannin (1.38 mg/g), and saponin (7.64 mg/g) compared to others. Antioxidants like phenol (9.75-15.78 mg.g<sup>-1</sup>), Vitamin C (5.49-23.25 mg.g-1), and Vitamin A (278.25 – 705.64 unit.g-1)obtained from the vegetables have an endless supply of natural and vital nutrients that the body requires for good health</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: Distinctively, the choice vegetables can be reputed as remarkable repositories of essential nutrients, and pharmacologically relevant antioxidant molecules.</em></p> Oyerinde Ayodeji Michael , Mathew Banji Oyun, Adeoye Bayo Olufunso, Olukunle Abiodun Olasupo, Ogundipe Gbenga, Jimoh Bashirat Adebola, Olatunde Bori Oladimeji, Mary Oluwamayowa Ayankanmi, Dare O. Adeagbo, Ajiboye Samuel Damilola Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional adequacy of two complementary foods developed from germinated-fermented/roasted quality protein maize and fermented/roasted pigeon pea flour <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Poor quality complementary foods contribute to high level of under-nutrition during complementary feeding period.</em></p> <p><strong><em>OBJECTIVE: </em></strong><em>This study examined the nutritional adequacy of two complementary foods developed from quality protein maize (QPM) fortified with pigeon pea (PP) using different processing methods.</em></p> <p><strong><em>METHODS: </em></strong><em>Germinated-fermented QPM/fermented-PP and roasted QPM/PP flours were combined separately with fish, carrot, pumpkin leaf powder, sucrose, and oil in the ratio 50:20:10:6:4:5:5 to formulate two diets, CompifO and CompifR using Nutri-Survey package. Nutrient (proximate, essential amino acids, iron, zinc, calcium, beta-carotene) and anti-nutrient (phytate) contents of the formulated diets were evaluated using standard procedures. The results were compared with World Health Organisation's recommendations for processed complementary food and a commercial complementary food (CCF) (control). Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple range tests.</em></p> <p><strong><em>RESULTS: </em></strong><em>CompifO had similar protein content (17.2%; 16.8%)but significantly higher iron (3.60, 1.95 mg/100 g), zinc (3.35, 1.15 mg/100 g) and vitamin A (104.21 RE, 90.61 RE) content than CompifR. The control had higher micronutrient contents than the formulated diets (p&lt;0.001). CompifO had lower phytate: iron and zinc molar ratios than CompifR. CompifO and CompifR satisfied the recommended energy density (≥4 kcal/g) and protein density (&gt; 4 g/100 kcal) for 6-8, 9-11 and 12-24 months age groups. The amino acid scores of CompifO (75%) and CompifR (74%) were similar but significantly lower (p&lt;0.001) than that of the CCF (89%). The limiting amino acid in the two formulations was</em></p> <p><strong><em>CONCLUSION: </em></strong><em>CompifO formulated from germinated-fermented grains was better than CompifR in terms of nutritional adequacy and may contribute to reduction in undernutrition among children.</em></p> Doris Anaemene, Grace Fadupin, Kolawole Falade Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative study of antioxidant compositions of <i>Ocimum gratissimum </i>(African Basil), <i>Ocimum africanum </i>(lemon basil), <i>Zingiber officinale</i> (ginger) and <i>Curcuma longa </i>(turmeric) <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Natural antioxidants are abundant in many herbs and spices in Nigeria. Knowledge of their antioxidant contents will promote decision to make these herbs and spices part of one's daily diet which is vital for optimal health.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objectives: </em></strong><em>Comparative analysis of antioxidants (phospholipids, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and carotenoids) contents of some common herbs and spices (African basil, lemon basil, ginger and turmeric) in Nigeria was carried out.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>Triplicate determinations of the value of each of the antioxidants in the samples were done using standard methods. The results were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Service Solution (SPSS) version 22. Means and standard deviations were analyzed. Duncan's new multiple range test was used to separate the means, and analysis of variance was used to compare the means. Significance was judged at p&lt;0.05. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine correlation between antioxidant contents of the herbs and spices</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>African basil had the highest phenolic compound content (156 mg/100 g), while ginger had the lowest content (17 mg/100g). The carotenoids content was highest (23.91 mg/100g) in African basil and lowest (1.56 mg/100g) in ginger. The ascorbic acid values of the samples ranged from 2.13mg/100g in African basil to 337 mg/100g in ginger. The phospholipid values of the samples ranged from 2.37 mg/100g in ginger to 11.13 mg/100g in turmeric.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>African basil is a better source of phenolic compounds and carotenoids; ginger is a richer source of ascorbic acid, and turmeric is a richer source of phospholipids. Incorporating these herbs and spices in diets is vital for optimal health; hence, creation of awareness on their health benefits through nutrition education is recommended.</em></p> Scholastica N. Eze, Kosisochukwu G. Nwosu, Peace N. Ani, Cyril O. Anoshirike, Nkechi G. Onyeke Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Food hygiene practices among food vendors in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The continuous rise in the incidence of food borne illness has led to an increase in global concern about food hygiene practices among food handlers and vendors.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>To assess the food hygiene practices among food vendors in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methodology: </em></strong><em>The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design involving 150 food vendors. Semi-structured questionnaire including an observational section modified by Society for Family Health (SFH) Water, Hygiene and Sanitation checklist were used to elicit relevant information. Data were analyzed and presented using frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation and Chi square used to test for association between relevant variables at 0.05 level of significance.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Food vending business was dominated by women (90%), almost 49% were aged 30-40yrs and 66.7% had food handler certificate. The food vendors demonstrated good food hygiene practices as 99.3% wash hands before cooking and after handling raw foods. Observation of environmental and personal hygiene revealed that 54% cooked in clean environment while 80% had no food debris observed on their hands. The food vendors environmental hygiene was influenced by age (p = 0.044), level of education (p = 0.002), monthly income (p = 0.006), and refuse disposal method (p = 0.034).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The food vendors displayed good food hygiene practices with suboptimal environmental practices. Regular environmental inspections by appropriate authorities to enforce and promote adequate environmental measure among food vendors is recommended.</em></p> Y. O. Adebayo, O. T. Lasabi, O. B. Akinsanya, A. E. Ogunleye Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Iodine status of women of reproductive age (15-49 Years) in Rivers State, Nigeria <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Iodine intake remains an issue for women of childbearing age. While it is essential for women to consume adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy, it is equally important that women of childbearing age consume sufficient amounts of iodine, especially those who are planning pregnancy.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong><em>This study assessed the iodine status of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Rivers State, Nigeria.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>The population for the study comprised all female senior secondary students and teachers between 15-49 years in the three senatorial zones of Rivers State. The minimum sample size required for the study was 320 women estimated using the Cochrane formula. A cross sectional study design was used in which both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods were employed.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The median urinary iodine concentration of the study population (129.06 </em><em>μ</em><em>g/L) indicated that the women had optimal iodine nutrition. The percentage of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) below 50 </em><em>μ</em><em>g/L in the women indicated that iodine deficiency among childbearing-age women has not yet been eliminated. A greater percentage of the women (44.16%) had more than the adequate iodine nutrition, while 6.49% were excessive.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>The iodine status of the women showed that none of the women were deficient. However, half of the respondents have high intake (200 </em><em>μ</em><em>g/L) and are at risk of iodine induced hyperthyroidism. Public awareness regarding the rate of iodine deficiency in women of reproductive age is therefore recommended.</em></p> Catherine Achese Orisa, Allbright Ovuchimeru Amadi, Gift Buduzhi Oguzor Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000