Articles can be submitted electronically from This is an online manuscript processing system which allows submission of articles with tracking of its progress till proof stage.

One is required to register as a new author – the process being a simple self-explanatory two stage process. Link for new author registration is available from the home page ( 

If article is submitted electronically, there is no need to send a hard copy.

Manuscript should be typewritten in English, double-spaced on one side only of 21.6 x 27.9 cm (A4) white bond, with 2.5 cm margins all around. The manuscript should consist of:
a. Title page 
b. Summary 
c. Text 
d. Acknowledgments 
e. References
f. Tables
g. Figures
h. Legends

Submit the original and two copies of the manuscript, with three sets of glossy prints of figures. Number manuscript pages consecutively beginning with the title page. Each manuscript component should begin on a new page in the sequence given above.

a) Title page should include:

• Title of manuscript
• Initials and surname
• Qualification of each author
• Names of each department and institution in which the work was done
• Name and address of corresponding author
• Three to six key words
• A running title of not more than forty characters (Avoid the use of abbreviations in the title)

b) Summary should contain 150-250 words and be structured under the specified headings for original articles, short communications, case reports, and reviews as follows:

Original contributions: (a) Objectives (b) Methods (c) Results (d) Conclusions.
Reviews: (a) Purpose (b) Source of data (c) Study selection (d) Data extraction (e) Results (f) Conclusions.
Other articles should be preceded by an unstructured summary.
Editorials, letters, commentaries, medical memoranda and position papers, do not require a summary. Please avoid the use of abbreviations in the summary.

Key words. Provide three to six key words (preferably using Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings

Information and Instructions for Authors

The body of the paper should consist of an introduction, including a brief review of the literature; details of research design, subject materials and methods, ethics, statistics, results and discussion. Long articles should contain subheadings.

Abbreviations and nomenclature
List in alphabetical order, non-standard abbreviations contained in the manuscript, excluding those in the references, with definitions after key words. Use abbreviations where necessary to save space and to avoid repeating long chemical names or therapeutic regimes. In a figure or table, define the abbreviations in a footnote.
Use generic names for all drugs except where there is a good reason to use proprietary (trade) names, such as for drugs which have adverse effects, or for comparison of different preparations of the same agent.

Ethical Considerations
All manuscripts reporting experiments on human subjects should be accompanied by a statement in the methods section that the author(s) has (have) complied with the requirements of the ethical committee of the institution in which the work was done. If investigators have no access to an ethics committee, the principles outlined in the Helsinki Declaration1 should be followed. Avoid using patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers. If full-face photographs are to be used, such photographs must be accompanied by a signed or thumb printed informed consent of the subject. Animal experimentation must follow the institution’s guidelines and/or national laws on the use of laboratory animals in research.

Conflict of interest: Authors should indicate any conflict of interest if any. If none exists, this should be clearly stated.

Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments of general support, financial and material support, technical help, etc. should be indicated at the end of the main text. It is the responsibility of authors to obtain the consent of those being acknowledged.

 Preparation of Manuscripts Top

Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with "Uniform requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals" developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (October 2008). The uniform requirements and specific requirement of Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology are summarized below. Before submitting a manuscript, contributors are requested to check for the latest instructions available. Instructions are also available from the website of the journal ( and from the manuscript submission site

Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology accepts manuscripts written in American English.

 Copies of any permission(s) Top

It is the responsibility of authors/ contributors to obtain permissions for reproducing any copyrighted material. A copy of the permission obtained must accompany the manuscript. Copies of any and all published articles or other manuscripts in preparation or submitted elsewhere that are related to the manuscript must also accompany the manuscript. The material should be sent to any of the two addresses given above.

 Types of Manuscripts Top

Original articles
Original research concerning any aspect (e.g., aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prevention) of disease. Animal research contribution of relevance to human health are also welcome. The text should be 8-20 pages, double-spaced, (A4) manuscript pages (maximum 4000 words).

Reviews including meta-analyses
Detailed, systematic and critical evaluation of the literature on a specified clinical problem. Reviews should include information such as type study, selection process, etc. Reviewed papers should not exceed 5000 words or 15-20 double-spaced, A4 manuscript pages and should contain subheadings.

Short communications and case reports
These may be unique case reports, clinical experiences or short reports of original research. Text should not exceed 1500 words or 3-10 double-spaced, A4 pages including tables and legends, a maximum of 15 references, two illustrations and two tables. The format is the same as original research contributions.

Workshop and conference reports
These may be general or specific conferences like medical grand rounds. The text should have a maximum of 5000 words or 15-20 double-spaced, A4 pages.

Medical memoranda
These are papers expressing personal or group opinions on political, socioeconomic, and other matters which relate to the practice of medicine. The text should be between 8-15 doublespaced, A4 pages.

Letters to the editor
Letters to the editor are handled solely by the editor and not subject to peer review. Letters should contain a maximum of 1000 words, two illustrations / tables and ten references. Contents of letters may be comments on materials published in the NJO, clinical observations or other matters of relevance to medicine and allied professions. Submit an original and one copy, typed in a double-spaced format.

When reporting studies on human beings, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (available at For prospective studies involving human participants, authors are expected to mention about approval of (regional/ national/ institutional or independent Ethics Committee or Review Board, obtaining informed consent from adult research participants and obtaining assent for children aged over 7 years participating in the trial. The age beyond which assent would be required could vary as per regional and/ or national guidelines. Ensure confidentiality of subjects by desisting from mentioning participants’ names, initials or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution’s or a national research council’s guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.
Evidence for approval by a local Ethics Committee (for both human as well as animal studies) must be supplied by the authors on demand. Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible and the details of anesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated. The ethical standards of experiments must be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the CPCSEA and World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Humans for studies involving experimental animals and human beings, respectively). The journal will not consider any paper which is ethically unacceptable. A statement on ethics committee permission and ethical practices must be included in all research articles under the ‘Materials and Methods’ section.

Study design:
Selection and Description of Participants:
 Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. 
Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.

Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (

Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs

Initiative Type of Study Source
CONSORT Randomized controlled trials
STARD Studies of diagnostic accuracy
QUOROM Systematic reviews and meta-analyses http://www.consort-
STROBE Observational studies in epidemiology
MOOSE Meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology http://www.consort-

StatisticsWhenever possible quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Authors should report losses to observation (such as, dropouts from a clinical trial). When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as 'random' (which implies a randomizing device), 'normal', 'significant', 'correlations', and 'sample'. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the computer software used. Use upper italics (P 0.048). For all P values include the exact value and not less than 0.05 or 0.001. Mean differences in continuous variables, proportions in categorical variables and relative risks including odds ratios and hazard ratios should be accompanied by their confidence intervals.

Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Extra- or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where it will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text; alternatively, it can be published only in the electronic version of the journal.

When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included.

Include summary of key findings (primary outcome measures, secondary outcome measures, results as they relate to a prior hypothesis); Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation); Interpretation and implications in the context of the totality of evidence (is there a systematic review to refer to, if not, could one be reasonably done here and now?, what this study adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms); Controversies raised by this study; and Future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research).
Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. In particular, contributors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. New hypotheses may be stated if needed, however they should be clearly labeled as such. About 30 references can be included. These articles generally should not have more than six authors.


Number references in order of appearance in text. Identify a reference number in text, tables, or legends by Arabic numerals in superscript. References should be in the Vancouver style, the standard format for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals.

Examples of correct forms of references
1. Journal articles should include the following information:
(a) surname and initials of all authors (up to 6) when 7 or more, list the first 6 and add et al., (b) article title, (c) name of journal (d) year (e) volume (f) number (g) pages. Example: Solanke TF, Ayeni O and Osanyintay SO. Effect of a mixture of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens). Niger Med J 1976; 6 (2): 23-25.

2. Book with one or two authors
(a) Surname and initials of all authors (b) title of the book (c) city (d) publisher (e) date (g) pages cited. Example: Schram R. History of Nigerian Health Services. 2nd ed. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press, 1991; 70-75.

3. Chapter in a book
(a) Surname and initials of ALL authors of particular chapter (b) title of chapter (c) editors (d) title of book (e) edition, except if first (f) city (g) publisher (h) year (i) pages. Example: Majekodunmi AA. Ocular emergencies. In: HO Adeyemo- Doro, ed. Manual of Emergency Surgery,2nd ed. Lagos, University of Lagos Press, 1991; 30-50.

Authors should verify references cited against the original document. Journal abbreviations should be as in the list of journals in the Index Medicus.

Units of measure
Measure height, weight, length, and volume in metres, kilogrammes, litres and other decimal multiples, respectively. Temperature should be reported in degrees celsius, while blood pressure will be given in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Haematological and clinical chemistry measurements should be reported in SI units with conversion factors provided as a footnote.

Tables should be double-spaced on separate A4 sheets, numbered consecutively and referred to in the text in Arabic numerals. Their approximate positions in the text should be indicated. The table title should be short, and likewise headings over columns should be short or use abbreviations. Explanations should be placed under the table, not in the heading. Footnote symbols should use the following sequence: * † ‡ § ¶ ** †† [left to right and top to bottom of the table]. Avoid the use of internal horizontal and vertical lines.

Figures and illustrations
Submit three sets of professionally drawn or computerscanned or created figures. Original drawings, X-rays, etc. are not acceptable. Black and white glossy prints of figures should be 127 x 173 mm (5 x 7 inches). Letters, numbers and symbols should be clear and large enough so that when reduced for publication each item will be legible. Titles and explanatory notes should be in the legend for the illustrations, NOT on the illustrations themselves. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers and numerals according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. Materials taken from other sources must be accompanied by written permission for reproduction from the publisher and/or author. Paste a label on the back of each figure indicating the number of the figure, author’s name and top of the figure and original source of illustration. Colour figures will be published at the author’s expense. Submit figures as unmounted and untrimmed prints in a protective envelope.

Legends for illustrations/ figures
Legends for illustrations should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and placed directly under each figure. Identify and explain in the legend each symbol, number, letter, etc. used in the illustration. Explain the internal scale or any methods of staining in photomicrographs.


Revised manuscripts and proofs
Two hard copies of the revised manuscript should be sent along with a 3.5 floppy disc copy using Microsoft Word or another compatible computer programme. Proofs may be sent to the corresponding author for corrections if specifically requested. Such proofs must be returned to the editor within seven days of posting.

On acceptance, the copyright of the paper will be vested in the journal and publisher. All authors are required to sign the copyright form which will accompany the letter of acceptance and return the form with the revised copy of the manuscript.


1) 41st World Medical Assembly. Declaration of research involving human subjects. Bull Pan Am Health  Org 1990; 24: 606-609.
2) International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Br Med J 1991; 302: 338-41.

Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy  Top

Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian, wherever applicable) gives written informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients' names from figures unless they have obtained written informed consent from the patients. When informed consent has been obtained, it should be indicated in the article and copy of the consent should be attached with the covering letter. 

Sending a revised manuscript  Top

The revised version of the manuscript should be submitted online in a manner similar to that used for submission of the manuscript for the first time. However, there is no need to submit the “First Page” or “Covering Letter” file while submitting a revised version. When submitting a revised manuscript, contributors are requested to include, the ‘referees’ remarks along with point to point clarification at the beginning in the revised file itself. In addition, they are expected to mark the changes as underlined or colored text in the article.

Reprints and proofs  Top

Journal provides no free printed reprints. Authors can purchase reprints, payment for which should be done at the time of submitting the proofs.

Publication schedule
The journal publishes articles on its website immediately on acceptance and follows a ‘continuous publication’ schedule. Articles are compiled for ‘print on demand’ semiannual issues.

Manuscript submission, processing and publication charges  Top

Article processing charge: 
The journal charges following fee on acceptance
Case Report, Editorial, Letter To Editor, Original Article, Review Article: US $ 100 (for overseas authors), INR 6000 (for authors from India)

(As mandated by the Indian Government and based on the Service tax Law and procedures, Wolters Kluwer India Private Ltd, would be charging service tax @15.00% (14.00% Service Tax + 0.5% Swachh Bharat Cess + 0.5% Krishi Kalyan Cess) on fees collected from Indian authors with effect from 1st June 2016. The said tax will be in addition to the prices maintained on the website to be collected from the authors and will be paid to the Indian Government.)

Checklist   Top

Covering letter
Signed by all contributors
Previous publication / presentations mentioned
Source of funding mentioned
Conflicts of interest disclosed

Last name and given name provided along with Middle name initials (where applicable)
Author for correspondence, with e-mail address provided
Number of contributors restricted as per the instructions
Identity not revealed in paper except title page (e.g. name of the institute in Methods, citing previous study as 'our study', names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs, etc.)

Presentation and format
Double spacing
Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides
Page numbers included at bottom
Title page contains all the desired information
Running title provided (not more than 50 characters)
Abstract page contains the full title of the manuscript
Abstract provided (structured abstract of 250 words for original articles, unstructured abstracts of about 150 words for all other manuscripts excluding letters to the Editor)
Key words provided (three or more)
Introduction of 75-100 words
Headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS)
The references cited in the text should be after punctuation marks, in superscript with square bracket.
References according to the journal's instructions, punctuation marks checked
Send the article file without ‘Track Changes’

Language and grammar
Uniformly American English
Write the full term for each abbreviation at its first use in the title, abstract, keywords and text separately unless it is a standard unit of measure. Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out
Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out
Check the manuscript for spelling, grammar and punctuation errors
If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer's name and address (city and state/country).
Species names should be in italics

Tables and figures
No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text
Actual numbers from which graphs drawn, provided
Figures necessary and of good quality (colour)
Table and figure numbers in Arabic letters (not Roman)
Labels pasted on back of the photographs (no names written)
Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words)
Patients' privacy maintained (if not permission taken)
Credit note for borrowed figures/tables provided
Write the full term for each abbreviation used in the table as a footnote

Contributors' form  Top

(to be modified as applicable and one signed copy attached with the manuscript)

Manuscript Title:

I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in contributing to the intellectual content, concept and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable), as well as writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor.

 I/we believe that the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the covering letter. 

I/We hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology, in the event that such work is published by the Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology. The Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology shall own the work, including

  1. copyright;
  2. the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee;
  3. the right to produce preprints or reprints and translate intouages other than English for sale or free distribution; and
  4. the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format.

We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf.

All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.

Name Signature Date signed
1 --------------- --------------- ---------------
2 --------------- --------------- ---------------
3 --------------- --------------- ---------------
4 --------------- --------------- --------------- (up to 4 contributors for case report/ images/ review)
5 --------------- --------------- ---------------
6 --------------- --------------- --------------- (up to 6 contributors for original studies)


Click here to download instructions

Click here to download copyright form

These ready to use templates are made to help the contributors write as per the requirements of the Journal.
Save the templates on your computer and use them with a word processor program. 
Click open the file and save as the manuscript file.
In the program keep 'Document Map' and 'Comments' on from 'View' menu to navigate through the file. 

Download Template for Original Articles/ABSTRACT Reports. (.DOT file)

Download Template for Case Reports.  (.DOT file)

Download Template for Review Articles.  (.DOT file)

Download Template for Letter to the Editor.  (.DOT file)

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2468-8363
print ISSN: 0189-9171