Vision survey of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University medical students
Aim: To determine the ocular problems of 1st‑year preclinical medical students at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: All registered 1st‑year preclinical medical students were examined in October 2008. Ocular investigation included filling out self‑administered questionnaire, visual acuity estimation, anterior segment examination, ophthalmoscopy, refraction, squint assessment, and measurement of accommodation amplitude.
Results: One hundred and eight students including 80 (74.1%) males and 28 (25.9%) females (M: F = 3:1), age range was 16–30 years, median – 21 years, were examined. Fifty‑two (48.2%) students had a positive family history of eye disease; 23 (21.3%) had symptoms of eye disease. Poor distance vision was the most common symptom; itching and poor near vision were uncommon. Of the 23 students with ocular symptoms, 18 (78.3%) had a positive family history of eye disease. Nine (8.3%) students had low vision. Ninety students (83.3%) had ocular problems, with 78 (63.0%) having ametropia (astigmatism, 72 [66.7%]; myopia, 5 [4.6%]; and hypermetropia, 1 [0.9%]), 2 (1.8%) latent strabismus, and 9 (8.3%) allergic conjunctivitis. One (0.9%) student had bilateral leukoma and dry eyes. The range of binocular amplitude of accommodation was 8.00–25.00 D with a median of 16.50 D. The mean accommodation amplitude was significantly higher than the population age norm (t – 5.739; P = 0.0003).
Conclusions: Some fresh university students have ocular problems that could interfere with their academic work. Preregistration ocular examination is recommended to enable the detection and treatment of any ocular disease that may impede optimal academic pursuit.
Keywords: Eye disorders, medical students, Nigeria